Sunday, March 18, 2018

Piedmont, R. L. (1999). Does spirituality represent the sixth factor of
personality? Spiritual transcendence and the five-factor model. Journal
of Personality, 67, 985–1013
Family and Gender Values in China: Generational, Geographic, and Gender Differences
Yang Hu, Jacqueline Scott

Journal of Family Issues
Vol 37, Issue 9, pp. 1267 - 1293

Saturday, March 17, 2018

Carl Jung

analytical psychology
Jung’s Individuation Process.
individuation---- a process of integrating the conscious and the unconscious.

individuation that is the central process of human development

Analytical psychology, or Jungian psychology: emphasizes the primary importance of the individual psyche and the personal quest for wholeness.

For Jung, archetypes consist of universal, mythic characters that reside within the collective unconscious of people the world over. Archetypes represent fundamental human motifs of our experience as we evolved; consequentially, they evoke deep emotions.

 integration of the ego (consciousness) with the personal and collective self.
Tornstam, L. (2003) Gerotranscendence from young old age to old old age.
Online publication from The Social Gerontology Group, Uppsala.
Tornstam, L. (2011). Maturing into gerotranscendence
Cosmic Transcendence Scale
The distinguishing qualities of Cosmic transcendence are: a) the respondents feelings of being connected with the whole of the universe, b) of being part of everything alive, c) the tendency to feel a strong presence of persons who are elsewhere, d) the tendency to feel as if one were living in the past and present simultaneously and e) a strong feeling of connection with earlier generations.

Reminiscence Functions Scale
Unity of Existence
Remember somebody who has passed away
Tell younger family members/people how it was when I was young/how it was to live in the old days
Help me to accept death
Revive happy moments in life

Understand myself better
Help me to solve problems
Get an overview of my life
Revive bitter memories

I am expected to
Gives me someting to do
Others do
Others ask me to

Tornstam, L. (1999). Gerotranscendence and the Functions of Reminiscence (Vol. 4).

disengagement theory

The disengagement theory suggests that as an individual ages, he would disengages himself socially and psychologically, moving from absorption with others to absorption with self.[1]

[1] Cumming, Dean, Newell & McCaffrey, 1960; Cumming, 1961; Cumming, 1968
Dalby, P. (2006). Is there a process of spiritual change or development associated with aging? A critical review of research. Aging&Mental Health, 10(1), 4–12.

Erikson, E. H. (1966). Eight stages of man. International Journal of Psychiatry, 2(3), 281–300.

Erikson, J.M. (1997). The life cycle completed: Extended version with new chapters on the ninth stage of development. New York/London: W.W. Norton & Company

Hauge, S. (1998). An analysis and critique of the theory of gerotranscendence. Retrieved from

Tornstam, L. (1992). The Quo Vadis of gerontology: On the scientific paradigm of gerontology. The Gerontologist, 32(3), 318–326.

Tornstam, L. (1994). Gero-transcendence: A theoretical and empirical exploration. In L. E. Thomas, & S. A. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Aging and the Religious Dimension (pp. 203–226).Westport, CT: Auburn House

Tornstam, L. (1996). Caring for the elderly: Introducing the theory of gerotranscendence as a supplementary frame of reference for caring for the elderly. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 10, 144–150.

Tornstam, L. (1997). Gerotranscendence in a broad cross sectional perspective. Journal of Aging and Identity, 2(1), 17–36.

Tornstam, L. (1999). Gerotranscendence and the functions of reminiscence. Journal of Aging and Identity, 4(3), 155–166.

Tornstam, L. (2003). Gerotranscendence from young old age to old age. Online Publication from The Social Gerontology Group, Uppsala (URL:

Tornstam, L. (2005). Gerotranscendence: A developmental theory of positive aging. New York: Springer.

Tornstam, L., & Törnqvist, M. (2000). Nursing staff's interpretations of “gerotranscendental behavior” in the elderly. Journal of Aging and Identity, 5(1), 15–29.

Wadensten, B., & Carlsson, M. (2001). A qualitative study of nursing staff members' interpretations of signs of gerotranscendence. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(5), 635–642.

Wadensten, B., & Carlsson, M. (2003). Theory-driven guidelines for practical care of older people, based on the theory of gerotranscendence. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41(5), 462–470.
ego-integrity (i.e., realizing that the pieces of life's jigsaw puzzle form a wholeness)

ego-integrity stage described by Erikson is a process ofreflection and integration of the past,
Erikson's theory, ego-integration primarily refers to the integration and possible reconstruction of elements from the life that has passed. The individual reaches a fundamental acceptance of the life lived, regardless of how it might be viewed from the outside. In this way, the ego-integrity described by Erikson is more a process of backward integration taking place within the same world view,

while gerotranscendence implies looking forward and outward accompanied by a fundamental change in how the self and world are perceived (Tornstam, 1999)
whereas the process of gerotranscendence implies a more forwardly or outwardly directed process, including a redefinition of reality. In the perspective of gerotranscendence, thus, reminiscence becomes part of a much larger reorganization and reconstruction process than is implied by Erikson's developmental theory.
Tornstam, L. (1999). Gerotranscendence and the Functions of Reminiscence

Furthermore, there appears to be a spiritual component (i.e., increased feeling of cosmic communion)
present in gerotranscendence that is not present in Erikson's theory. Because of this, gerotranscendence can be seen as an extension of Erikson's model (Erikson, 1997; Tornstam, 2005, p. 76).

west culture, activity theory

-Disengagement theory + 
The Western culture emphasizing youth, social activities and engagements, ego-strength, productivity, and a realistic or practical view of the world makes old people feel guilty of being disengaged, and thus may impede the process towards gero-transcendence.[1] Tornstam, L. (1992). The Quo Vadis of Gerontology: On the Scientific Paradigm of Gerontology. The Gerontologist, 32(3), 318-326
Activity Theory in Western cultures. Many younger individuals, including those who care for older adults, may embrace the belief that older adulthood primarily involves a continuation of activities and values of middle age and that “optimal aging” involves the continuation of activity of a certain kind (e.g., staying physically and socially engaged). Buchanan, J. A., Ebel, D., Garcia, S., VandeNest, F. J., & Omlie, C. C. (2016).

One of themost prominent theories of aging is activity theory which posits that older adults have the same psychological and social needs as when they were younger (Havighurst, 1961).
However, because society withdraws from the aging individual, people are forced to give up their roles (e.g., employee, parent) and decrease social interactions. When the loss of roles occurs, an individual can experience loss of identity, low self-esteem, and isolation. Therefore, in order to experience successful aging, the individual should remain productive in society and replace role losses with new roles and increase social interaction.
Havighurst, R. J. (1961). Successful aging. The Gerontologist, 1(1), 8–13.

[1] Tornstam, 1989; Chinen, 1985
Braam, A. W., Bramsen, I., van Tilburg, T. G., van der Ploeg, H. M., & Deeg, D. (2006).
Cosmic transcendence and framework of meaning in life: Patterns among older adults in
the Netherlands. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social
Sciences, 61(3), S121–S128. doi:10.1093/geronb/61.3.S121

Jewell, A. (2010). The importance of purpose in life in an older British Methodist sample:
Pastoral implications. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 22(3), 138–161. doi:10.1080/

Read, S., Braam, A. W., Lyyra, T.-M., & Deeg, D. J. H. (2014). Do negative life events promote
gerotranscendence in the second half of life? Aging & Mental Health, 18(1), 117–124.

Wadensten, B., & Carlsson, M. (2001). A qualitative study of nursing staff members’ interpretations
of signs of gerotranscendence. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36(5), 635–642.

Tornstam, L. (1997a). Gerotranscendence in a broad cross-sectional perspective. Journal of
Aging and Identity, 2(1), 17–36.

Tornstam, L. (1997b). Gerotranscendence: The contemplative dimension of aging. Journal of
Aging Studies, 11(2), 143–154. doi:10.1016/S0890-4065(97)90018-9

Tornstam, L. (2003). Gerotranscendence from young old age to old age. Online publication
from The Social Gerontology Group, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. http://www.

Tornstam, L. (2005). Gerotranscendence: A developmental theory of positive aging. New York,
NY: Springer.

Tornstam, L. (2011). Maturing into gerotranscendence. The Journal of Transpersonal
Psychology, 43(2), 166–180.

Tornstam, L., & Törnqvist, M. (2000). Nursing staff’s interpretations of “gerotranscendental
behavior” in the elderly. Journal of Aging and Identity, 5(1), 15–29. doi:10.1023/

Gerotranscendence was eventually accepted as the ninth and final stage of human development (Erikson & Erikson, 1998; Tornstam, 2005, p. 194).

Erikson, E. E., & Erikson, J. M. (1998). Life cycle completed. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

Wadensten, B. (2007). The theory of gerotranscendence as applied to gerontological nursing_
Part I. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 2, 289–294. doi:10.1111/opn.2007.2.

a fear of death is not in itself a motivator for achieving greater cosmic transcendence (Tornstam, 1997a).

Buchanan, J. A., Lai, D., & Ebel, D. (2015). Differences in perception of gerotranscendence
behaviors between college students and community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Aging
Studies, 34, 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.jaging.2015.03.003

Friday, March 16, 2018

Gender & Development

Brennan, M., & Mroczek, D. K. (2003). Examining Spirituality Over Time: Latent Growth Curve and Individual Growth Curve Analyses. Journal of Religious Gerontology, 14(1), 11-29. doi: 10.1300/J078v14n01_02
Ribaudo, A., & Takahashi, M. (2008). Temporal Trends in Spirituality Research: A Meta-Analysis of Journal Abstracts between 1944 and 2003. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 20(1-2), 16-28. doi: 10.1080/15528030801921972

 Viktor Frankl.  Man’s Search for Meaning,

 the real aim of human existence cannot be found in what is called self-actualization. Human existence is essentially self-transcendence rather than self-actualization. Self-actualization is not a possible aim at all; for the simple reason that the more a [person] would strive for it, the more [they] would miss it.

For only to the extent to which [people] commit [themselves] to the fulfillment of [their] life’s meaning, to this extent [they] also actualize [themselves.] 

In other words, self-actualization cannot be attained if it is made an end in itself, but only as a side-effect of self-transcendence.

ego-transcendence, Jung

Jung described the phenomenon at some length (Jung, 1955; Whitmont, 1969; Edinger, 1972)

In the first half of life, Jung believed, an individual develops the ego-the center of conscious identity
and personal will. The ego opposes the unconscious and particularly tries to suppress impulses which conflict with the individual's conscious self-concept. For example, Jung felt that men repress their feminine side in order to fit their conception of masculinity, while women suppress their masculine side. The unconscious is not just a chaotic mass of unacceptable impulses, however. Jung believed that within it lay great creative potential and untapped resources. In particular, he felt the unconscious contained the inner, true Self-a center of harmony, integration, and unity, towards which the individual constantly struggles.

The challenge of the second half of life, Jung felt, involves transcending the narrow dimensions of the conscious ego. The individual can then explore the unfamiliar and often frightening world of the unconscious, seeking the inner self. This true Self, with a capital S, is often symbolized as a divine being in dreams and myths, to emphasize the fact that the Self transcend s the conscious ego, just as the gods transcend man.

JUNG, C. G. (I 955a). Psychology and alchemy. Collected Works, Volume 12. Princeton: Princeton Univ, Press.

JUNG, C. G. (l95Sb). The archetypes and the collective unconscious. Collected Works, Volume 12. Princeton: Princeton Univ, Press.

EDINGER, E. (1972). Ego and archetype: Individuation and the religious function oj the psyche. Middlesex: Penguin.

Thursday, March 15, 2018

Chinen A.B.: Fairy tales and transpersonal development in later life. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 17: 99-122,1985

Chinen AB.: Elder tables revisited: Forms of transcendence in later life. The Journal of Transpersonal
Psychology 18: 171-192, 1986.
Cumming E., Newell D.S.: Disengagement - A tentative theory of aging. Sociometry 23: .23-24, 1960.

Cumming E., Henry W.: Growing Old: The process of disengargement. Basic Books, New York, 1961.

Cumming E.: Further thoughts on the theory of disengagement, UNESCO International Science Journal 15: 377-393, 1963.
Jack Weinberg, Alvin I. Goldfarb, and other psychiatrists interested in older people have reported a reduction in ego strength of the aged

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging
The social psychology of power
Ng, Sik Hung.
 Bertrand Russell in his essay,”How To Grow Old.”

The best way to overcome it [the fear of death]—so at least it seems to me—is to make your interests gradually wider and more impersonal, until bit by bit the walls of the ego recede, and your life becomes increasingly merged in the universal life. An individual human existence should be like a river: small at first, narrowly contained within its banks, and rushing passionately past rocks and over waterfalls. Gradually the river grows wider, the banks recede, the waters flow more quietly, and in the end, +without any visible break, they become merged in the sea, and painlessly lose their individual being. The man who, in old age, can see his life in this way, will not suffer from the fear of death, since the things he cares for will continue. And if, with the decay of vitality, weariness increases, the thought of rest will not be unwelcome. I should wish to die while still at work, knowing that others will carry on what I can no longer do and content in the thought that what was possible has been done.

Summary of Maslow on Self-Transcendence

Lars Tornstam on Gerotranscendence


Gerotranscendence: A Developmental Theory of Positive Aging
by Lars Tornstam PhD

Bengtson, V. (1973). The Social Psychology of Aging. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.

Chinen, A. B. (1985). Fairy Tales and Transpersonal Development in Later Life. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 17, 99–122.

—. (1986). Elder Tales Revisited: Forms of Transcendence in Later Life. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 26, 171–192.

—. (1989a). From Quantitative to Qualitative Reasoning: A Developmental Perspective. In E. E. Thomas, Research on Adulthood and Aging: The Human Science Approach. State University of New York Press.

—. (1989b). In the Ever After: Fairy Tales and the Second Half of Life. Wilmette, Illinois: Chiron Publications.

Cumming, E. (1963). Further Thoughts on the Theory of Disengagement. UNESCO International Social Science Journal, 377–393.

Cumming, E., et al. (1960). Disengagement—A Tentative Theory of Aging. Sociometry, 23, 23–35.

Cumming, E., & Henry, W. E. (1961). Growing Old: The Processes of Disengagement. New York: Basic Books.

Erikson, E. H., Erikson, J. M., & Kivnick, H. Q. (1986). Vital Involvment in Old Age. New York: Norton.

Hooyman, N. R., & Asuman Kiyak, H. (1988). Social Gerontology: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Peck, R. (1956). Psychological Development in Second Half of Life. In J. E. Anderson (Ed.), Psychological Aspects of Aging. Washington: American Psych. Assoc.

Tornstam, L. (1989). Gerotranscendence; A Meta-theoretical Reformulation of the Disengagement Theory. Aging: Clinical and Experimental Research, 1.1, 55–63.

—. (1994). Gerotranscendence—A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration. In L. E. Thomas & S. A. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Aging and the Religious Dimension. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.

—. (1996a). Gerotranscendence—A Theory About Maturing into Old Age. Journal of Aging and Identity, 1.1, 37–50.

—. (1996b). Caring for the Elderly Introducing the Theory of Gerotranscendence as a Supplementary Frame of Reference for Caring for the Elderly. Scand J Caring Sci, 10, 144–150.

—. (1997a). Gerotranscendence: The Contemplative Dimension of Aging. Journal of Aging Studies, 11.2, 143–154.

—. (1997b). Gerotranscendence in a Broad Cross Sectional Perspective, Journal of Aging and Identity, 2.1, 17–36.

—. (1997c). Life Crises and Gerotranscendence, Journal of Aging and Identity, 2, 117–131.


塔塔粉  cream of tartar --- 2 小匙
小蘇打粉  baking soda --- 1 小匙
拌勻, 立即烘焙使用
self-concept differentiation (SCD), the extent to which persons' self-representations are different for different social roles and contexts, across the adult life span
Waterman, A. S., & Archer, S. L. (1990). A life span perspective on identity formation: Developments in form, function, and process. In P. B. Baltes, D. L. Featherman, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 10, p. 29-57). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Self-Concept Clarity

1. My beliefs about myself often conflict with one another.

2. On one day I might have one opinion of myself and on another day I might have a different opinion.

3. I spend a lot of time wondering about what kind of person I really am?

4. Sometimes I feel that I am not really the person that I appear to be?

5. When I think about the kind of person I have been in the past, I'm not sure what I was really like.

6. I seldom experience conflict between the different aspects of my personality.

7. Sometimes I think I know other people better than I know myself.

8. My beliefs about myself seem to change very frequently.

9. If l were asked to describe my personality, my description might end up being different from one day to another day.

10. Even if l wanted to, I don't think I could tell someone what I'm really like.

11. In general, I have a clear sense of who I am and what I am.

12. It is often hard for me to make up my mind about things because I don't really know what I want.

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Robert Kegan, The Evolving Self

The Evolving Self (1982), Kegan explores human life problems from the perspective of a single process which he calls meaning-making, the activity of making sense of experience through discovering and resolving problems. "Thus it is not that a person makes meaning, as much as that activity of being a person is the activity of meaning-making," Kegan says. Meaning-making is a lifelong activity that begins in earliest infancy and can evolve in complexity

Lawrence Kohlberg, Kohlberg's stages of moral development

James W. Fowler, Stages of faith development

book Stages of Faith, published in 1981,

Stage 6 – "Universalizing" faith, or what some might call "enlightenment". The individual would treat any person with compassion as he or she views people as from a universal community, and should be treated with universal principles of love and justice.

Leak, G. (2008). Factorial validity of the Faith Development Scale. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 18 (2) pp123ff.

Erik Erikson, Erikson's stages of psychosocial development

Early adulthood (20–39)
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Friends, partners
Can I love?
Romantic relationships

Adulthood (40–64)
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Household, workmates
Can I make my life count?
Work, parenthood
Generativity---a concern for establishing and guiding the next generation.
generativity in its broadest sense refers to creative and productive activity through work
Socially-valued work and disciplines are expressions of generativity.
contributing to society and helping to guide future generations.
raising a family or working toward the betterment of society, a sense of generativity—a sense of productivity and accomplishment
Erikson’s concept embraces a sense of caring for the future; caring for the next generation.
Erikson included working for a better world as part of his concept
care for and about others
Generativity is also positively associated with volunteerism, community involvement, and voting
Philanthropy as a Form of Generativity
Erikson’s concept of generativity implies not simply having children but to giving back or contributing to society and future generations.

Erikson's notion of "generativity" (Erikson, 1950, 1983).As Erikson conceived it, generativity is a form of altruism and involves a concern for other people, especially those in the next generation.
Teaching students or acting as a mentor to young colleagues provide good examples of generativity (Levinson, et al. 1978). The individual does not seek his own advantage, but the nurturance of another person. Raising one's own children, of course, is the most commonly cited instance of generativity, although all too often narcissism is really the motive rather than generativity: the parent sees only himself in the child, seeking to perpetuate himself through the child. True generativity involves recognizing somebody as an individual in his own right, not as an extension of oneself. Generativity, Erikson argued, is a task for middle and later life, and unless an individual attains it to some degree, further emotional development does not easily occur.

The alternative to generativity, Erikson thought, is rather dismal. It is stagnation. The self-centered individual becomes trapped in his own desires, ambitions, and griefs, unable to see the larger whole. Such an ego-centered position is self defeating, given the inevitability of personal losses in the
second half of life.

In contrast, a person who is self-centered and unable or unwilling to help society move forward develops a feeling of stagnation—a dissatisfaction with the relative lack of productivity.
The opposing concept to generativity is stagnation, or the loss of self in selfabsorptio

Maturity (65-death)
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Mankind, my kind
Is it okay to have been me?
Reflection on life
contemplate our accomplishments and are able to develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life.
retrospection: people look back on their lives and accomplishments. They develop feelings of contentment and integrity if they believe that they have led a happy, productive life. They may instead develop a sense of despair if they look back on a life of disappointments and unachieved goals.
Integrity in the later years of life implies acceptance of a life that was well-lived.
by this age a person begins take a
reflective and evaluative look back at his or her life. A person may ask questions like “Was my life fulfilling?” or “What was I able to accomplish?

eighth stage, which Erikson calls "ego-integrity". At this stage the individual reaches a fundamental acceptance of his/her life, regardless of how good or bad it had been. The individual looks back and feels satisfied with the past.
ego-integrity--- the affirmation of one's own life as it was and it (see through illusion, rejecting illusion, Chinen, 1985)

According to Erikson's theory, the individual does not reach the eighth stage of ego-integrity,
he/she expe riences despair and fear of death. The positive personality characteristic during
this eighth stage is wisdom while its negative component is disgust and contempt

Despair, however, implies a lack of further hope. Despair can result from unfulfilled potential or a feeling that one has wasted one’s life, without hope for personal redemption
Despair is often disguised by an outward attitude of contempt toward others. Such contempt, according to Erikson, really reflects contempt for the self, projected outward.

Joan Erikson: The Ninth Stage
added a ninth stage in The Life Cycle Completed: Extended Version
The Life Cycle Completed (Erikson, 1997)
in the eighties or in the nineties
close connection between culture and identity. In our own culture, she observed, old people are often isolated from the rest of the community.
“aged individuals are often ostracized, neglected, and overlooked; elders are seen no longer as bearers of wisdom but as embodiments of shame”

she believed that “old people can and do maintain a grand-generative function”

Joan Erikson promotes Lars Tornstam’s (1993) concept of gerotranscendence toward the final stage of life, which consists of these changes in perception:

1. A feeling of “cosmic communion” with the universe (or spiritual connectedness),
2. Time being circumscribed (the future is limited),
3. Reduced mobility, implying a narrowing of personal space,
4. Death being seen philosophically as “the way of all living things,” and
5. A sense of self expanding to include “a wider range of interrelated others” (J. Erikson, in Erikson, 1997, p. 124).

The Life Cycle Completed
By Erik H. Erikson, Joan M. Erikson, 1997

Lars Tornstam’s (1993) gerotranscendence

Jean Piaget, Theory of cognitive development

 Loevinger, J. (1976). Ego Development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Loevinger proposed eight/nine stages of ego in development,

the six which occur in adulthood being conformist, conscientious-conformist, conscientious, individualistic, autonomous, and integrated.

The majority of adults are at the conscientious-conformist level.

new stage E10
Need to evaluate things and persons is abandoned. Merging with the world, no more holding, but engaging in the flow of things. Playful alternation between seriousness and triviality, intermingling of different states of consciousness, thinking in time cycles and historical dimensions, full acceptance of differences and people as they are.

Cook-Greuter, Susanne (1985). "Ego Development: Nine Levels of Increasing Embrace".
Loevinger noticed that the women who scored at the most extreme ends of the authoritarian scale also tended to be the most immature. These women would tend to agree with such statements as "[a] mother should be her daughter's best friend" while at the same time endorsing punitive behavior.

Additionally, Loevinger observed that a liberal, non-authoritarian personality was not the opposite of a high authoritarian personality. Rather, anomie, a disorganized and detached social style was the opposite of the high authoritarian, evidencing a curvilinear relationship.

Anomie  is a "condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals". It is the breakdown of social bonds between an individual and the community, e.g., under unruly scenarios resulting in fragmentation of social identity and rejection of self-regulatory values.
Filipp, S.-H., & Klauer, T. (1986). Conceptions of self over the life span: Reflections on the dialectics of change. In M. M. Baltes & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), The psychology of aging and control (pp. 167–204). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
mean levels of integration of the self-concept increase until adolescence, decrease up to midlife and increase again thereafter.
In contrast, the trajectory of self-complexity (in the sense of number of relevant self domains mentioned) follows an inverted Ushape function during adulthood.

Staudinger, U. M., & Pasupathi, M. (2000). Life span perspectives on self, personality, and social cognition. In F. I. M. Craik & T. A. Salthouse (Eds.), The handbook of aging and cognition (2nd ed.,
pp. 633–688). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum

Freund, A. M., & Smith, J. (1999). Content and function of the selfdefinition in old and very old age. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 55–67.

Filipp, S.-H., & Klauer, T. (1986). Conceptions of self over the life span: Ref lections on the dialectics of change. In M. M. Baltes & P. B. Baltes (Eds.), The psychology of aging and control
(pp. 167–204). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Dittmann-Kohli, F. (1991). Meaning and personality change from early to late adulthood. European Journal of Personality, 1, 98–103

Herzog, A. R., Franks, M. M., Markus, H. R., & Holmberg, D. (1998). Activities and well-being in older age: Effects of self-concept and educational attainment. Psychology and Aging, 13, 179–185.

Campbell, J. D., Assanand, S., & Di Paula, A. (2003). The structure of the self-concept and its relation to psychological adjustment. Journal of Personality, 71, 115–140.

Linville, P. W. (1987). Self-complexity as a cognitive buffer against stress-related depression and illness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 663–676.

Donahue, E. M., Robins, R. W., Roberts, B. W., & John, O. P. (1993). The divided self: Concurrent and longitudinal effects of psychological adjustment and social roles on self-concept differentiation.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 834–846.

Harter, S. (1998). The development of self-representations. In W. Damon (Editor-in-Chief ) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (5th ed., pp. 553–617). New York: Wiley.
Marsh et al., 2002

Elbogen, E. B., Carlo, G., & Spaulding, W. (2001). Hierarchical classification and the integration of self-structure in late adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 657–670.

Diehl, M., Hastings, C. T., & Stanton, J. M. (2001). Self-concept differentiation across the adult life span. Psychology and Aging, 16, 643–654.

Lerner, R. M., & Busch-Rossnagel, N. (Eds.). (1981). Individuals as producers of their development: A life span perspective. New York: Academic Press.

personal growth, purpose in life

“environmental mastery,” “autonomy,”
or “personal growth” and “purpose in life,”

Ryff and Keyes (1995) find that the first two dimensions increase with age during adulthood and
old age and the latter two level off after midlife. The increases in environmental mastery and autonomy can be described as being highly functional and adaptive for mastering adult life.

Personal growth and purpose in life, however, level off in midlife. This developmental trend fits well with the decline observed in openness to new experiences in old age. It has been argued (Staudinger, 2005), that these observed declines in self-reported openness, personal growth and purpose in life, may indicate that in contrast to social adaptation, personal maturity is less likely to come with age for most people.

And indeed studies of wisdom (e.g., Staudinger, 1999b) and of ego development (e.g., Labouvie-Vief et al., 1987) find no normative increase with age during adulthood.

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.

Staudinger, U. M. (1999b). Social cognition and a psychological approach to an art of life. In F. Blanchard-Fields & T. Hess (Eds.), Social cognition, adult development and aging (pp. 343–375). New York: Academic Press.

Labouvie-Vief, G., Hakim-Larson, J., & Hobart, C. J. (1987). Age, ego level, and the life span development of coping and defense processes. Psychology and Aging, 2, 286–293.

Monday, March 12, 2018

gender, spirituality

book: Gender and the Life Course

Carol Gilligan's psychology of women

Helson & Pals, 2000
Pals, 1999
Marcia 1966; 1980
Carol Gilligan 1982

Psychology of women quarterly

Ethics of care

 Gilligan's theory of moral development does not focus on the value of justice. She developed an alternative theory of moral reasoning based on the ethics of caring.

Gilligan, Carol (1982). "In a Different Voice: Women's Conceptions of Self and Morality". Harvard Educational Review. 47 (4).

Tornstam, L. (2003). Gerotranscendence from young old age to old old age. Retrieved from

Tornstam, L. (1999). Gerotranscendence and the Functions of Reminiscence (Vol. 4).

Tornstam, L. (2011). Maturing into gerotranscendence

Tornstam, L., (1994). Gerotranscendence—A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration. In L.E. Thomas
and S.A. Eisenhandler (Eds.), Aging and the Religious Dimension, (pp 203-225). Westport:
Greenwood Publishing Group.

Tornstam, L. (1997b). Gerotranscendence in a Broad Cross Sectional Perspective. Journal of Aging
and Identity, 2(1), 17-36.

Tornstam, L. (1997c). Life Crises and Gerotranscendence, Journal of Aging and Identity, 2, 117-131.

Loevinger's stages of ego development

life span development of the self-concept

Erikson (e.g., 1959) or Bühler (e.g., 1933), research programs around scholars such as Loevinger (e.g., 1976), D. J. Levinson (e.g., 1986), Ryff (e.g., 1991), Whitbourne (e.g., 1987), Dittmann-Kohli (e.g., Dittmann-Kohli, Bode, & Westerhof, 2001), Diehl (e.g., Diehl, Hastings, & Stanton, 2001), and Herzog and Markus (1999) focus on the life span development of the self-concept and of its
adaptive qualities.

Loevinger, J. (1976). Ego development: Conception and theory. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Levinson, D. J. (1986). A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41, 3–13.

Ryff, C. D. (1991). Possible selves in adulthood and old age: A tale of shifting horizons. Psychology and Aging, 6, 286–295.

Whitbourne, S. K. (1987). Personality development in adulthood and old age: Relationships among identity style, health, and wellbeing. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 7, 189–216.

Diehl, M., Hastings, C. T., & Stanton, J. M. (2001). Self-concept differentiation across the adult life span. Psychology and Aging, 16, 643–654.

Herzog, A. R., & Markus, H. R. (1999). The self-concept in life span and aging research. In V. L. Bengtson & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of theories of aging (pp. 227–252). New York: Springer.

Waterman, A. S., & Archer, S. L. (1990). A life span perspective on identity formation: Developments in form, function, and process. In P. B. Baltes, D. L. Featherman, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Life span development and behavior (Vol. 10, pp. 29–57). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

Markus, H. R., & Wurf, E. (1987). The dynamic self-concept: A social psychological perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 299–337.

Singer, J. L. (1984). The private personality. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 10, 7–30.

Ryff, C. D. (1984). Personality development from the inside: The subjective experience of change in adulthood and aging. In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim Jr. (Eds.), Life span development and behavior (Vol. 6, pp. 249–279). New York: Academic Press.

Sunday, March 11, 2018

Erikson, E. H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. Psychological Issues Monograph 1. New York: International University Press.

Erikson, E. H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle: Selected papers. Psychological Issues, 1, 1-171.

Erikson, E. H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. Psychological Issues

Monograph 1. New York: International University Press.

wisdom (P. B. Baltes & Staudinger, 2000; Kunzmann & Baltes, 2003a, 2003b; Sternberg & Jordan, 2005)

Baltes, P. B., & Staudinger, U. M. (2000). Wisdom: A metaheuristic to orchestrate mind and virtue towards excellence. American Psychologist, 55, 122–136.

Kunzmann, U., & Baltes, P. B. (2003a). Beyond the traditional scope of intelligence: Wisdom in action. In R. J. Sternberg, J. Lautrey, & T. I. Lubart (Eds.), Models of intelligence: International perspectives
(pp. 329–343). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Kunzmann, U., & Baltes, P. B. (2003b). Wisdom-related knowledge: Affective, motivational, and interpersonal correlates. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1104–111

Sternberg, R. J., & Jordan, J. (Eds.). (2005). A handbook of wisdom: Psychological perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press.


life-span human development
Life-span developmental psychology
development is a lifelong process

Lifelong Development, development occurs across one’s entire life
Lifelong development iencompasses the entire life span, from conception to death
all stages of the life span equally contribute in the regulation of the nature of human development; no age period holds supremacy over another.

human development, multidimensionality
a complex interplay of factors, both endogenous and exogenous, influence development across the lifespan
dynamic interaction of these factors is what influences an individual’s development.

historical embeddedness
a relationship exists between an individual's development and the socio-cultural setting around them, and also how this setting evolves over time.
During the time of adolescence, Baltes believed the socio-cultural setting in which an individual develops plays a distinct role in the development of their personality.
socio-cultural setting evolves over time

Vietnam War-- The study involved individuals of four different adolescent age groups who all showed significant personality development in the same direction (a tendency to occupy themselves with ethical, moral, and political issues rather than cognitive achievement).---Nesselroade, J. R., & Baltes, P. B. (1974). Adolescent personality development and historical change: 1970-1972. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 39(1, Serial No. 154).

Edler showed that the Great Depression was a setting that significantly affected the development of adolescents and their corresponding adult personalities, by showing a similar common personality development across age groups---Edler, G. H., Jr. (1974). Children of the Great Depression. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Jump up ^ Edler, G. H., Jr., & Liker, J. K. (1982). Hard times in women’s lives: Historical influences across forty years. American Journal of Sociology, 88, 241–269

Contextualism as a paradigm is Baltes’ idea that three systems of biological and environmental influence work together to influence development: age-graded, history-graded, and nonnormative influences.
three systems of influence work together to influence development. Concerning adolescent development, the age-graded influences would help to explain the similarities within a cohort, the history-graded influences would help to explain the differences between cohorts, and the nonnormative influences would explain the idiosyncrasies of each adolescents individual development. When all influences are considered together, it lends to a broader explanation of an adolescent’s development.

Saturday, March 10, 2018

Journal of Happiness Studies

The Humanistic Psychologist

Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Psychology, 25(1), 1-65. doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60281-6

Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the content and structure of values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 19-45. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1994.tb01196.x
life is indeed short
time is absolutely not enough
because do not have enough/much time to read good books
donate 60+ CD/DVD to a public library
feeling good

Paul Wong

Generational Group, generation , Cohort

Smola, K.W., & Sutton, C.D. (2002). Generational differences: Revisiting generational work values for the new millennium. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 363-382.

Ryder, N. B. (1965). The cohort as a concept in the study of social change. American Sociological Review, 30, 843–861.

Gilleard, C., & Higgs, P. (2002). The Third Age: Class, Cohort or Generation? (Vol. 22).


Cohort means a group of people who share a characteristic, usually age e.g. elder persons whose age is 70 + years old.
Generation includes all of the people born & living at about the same time generally considered to be about 30 years.

there is a fundamental difference between cohort and generation in that the former is preciser than the latter. Cohort means a group of people who were born in the same year and hence they have the same age. Generation means a group of people who were born and live, for exemple, in the same decade. So, we can say that we belong to the generation of 90s, that this,we were born and live or lived, forexample, between 1990 and 2000. Of course, to belong to a certain cohort or generation implies to belong to a given physical and social milieu.

Cohort is used in education to refer to a group that begins an academic program at the same time and takes all of the same courses.  In education, it does not reference the people's age, which may be diverse, just their shared academic experiences.

 In developmental psychology it means what I have said. A group of individuals who were born in the same year, and hence, they share the same age. In the educational fiel, cohort has a different meaning as can be seen in Michael's answer.

Peers and cohorts are not  the same. Individuals who belong to a cohort  share the same age in the domain of developmental psychology. This is not the case of peers.  As you konw, when papers are published they were subject to a peer-review system. This does not  mean that these peers are necessarily of the same age as that of the paper's author or authors. Thus peers and cohorts are not synonymous. Cohort is also rarely, if ever, pluralized.

Cohorts give researchers a tool to analyze changes in views over time; they can provide a way to understand how different formative experiences interact with the life-cycle and aging process to shape people’s view of the world. While younger and older adults may differ in their views at a given moment, age cohorts allow researchers to go further and examine how today’s older adults felt about a given issue when they themselves were young, as well as to describe how the trajectory of views might differ across age cohorts. While generations are one way to group age cohorts. A generation typically refers to groups of people born over a 15-20 year span, such as the Millennial generation, currently the youngest adult generation. Generational analysis is an important tool used by researchers.

Cohort effects
Cohort effects are variations over time, in one or more characteristics, among groups of individuals defined by some shared experience such as year or decade of birth, or years of a specific exposure. Any given population comprises multiple subcohorts with different rates of exposures and outcomes. This makes the overall population heterogeneous and can mask or distort effects which might be present in smaller, more homogeneous, constituent subcohorts. For example, an apparent relationship between aging and cognitive impairment within an American population as a whole may in fact reflect not an age effect but a cohort effect. The earlier-born cohort (now aged 85 + years) grew up during the Depression Era and many boys dropped out of school at age 12 to work in the coal mines. Their poor cognitive impairment in their 80s might be the result of their early adverse educational or environmental exposures compared to their children's generation (now aged 65–74 years), and not merely a function of “age.” Within each birth cohort, there may be no age effect. In addition to age and cohort effects, there can be period effects due to events or developments at a specific time, e.g., a nuclear radiation exposure, or introduction of a new therapeutic class of drugs.

Additional factors to be kept in mind when assessing trends over time include changes in the age composition of the population, and changes in screening and diagnostic criteria. If any of these factors are in play, they can produce changes in incidence and prevalence which do not in fact indicate a true trend due to, e.g., improved control of the disease.

Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson's work on self-integrity with age

Integrity vs. Despair: Psychosocial Development Stage 8 of Erikson's Psychosocial Development Theory

Paul Baltes

lifespan developmental theory

Lifelong Development Theory of Psychology  (check publication list)

Goulet, L. R., & Baltes, P. B. (Eds.). (1970). Life-span developmental psychology: Research and theory. New York: Academic Press

Baltes, P. B., Reese, H. W., & Nesselroade, J. R. (1977). Life-span developmental psychology: An introduction to research methods. Monterey, CA: Brooks Cole (reprinted 1988 - Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum)

Baltes, P. B. (Ed.). (1978). Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 1). New York: Academic Press

Gary Reker

Reker, G.T. (2005).  Meaning in life of young, middle-aged, and older adults: Factorial validity, age and gender invariance of the Personal Meaning Index (PMI).  Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 71-85.

Reker, G.T., & Chamberlain, K. (Eds.) (2000).  Exploring existential meaning: Optimizing human development across the life span.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.

Reker, G.T., & Fry, P.S. (2003).  Factor structure and invariance of personal meaning measures in cohorts of younger and older adults.  Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 997-993.

This poet wants brown girls to know they're worthy of being the hero and...

Thursday, March 08, 2018

do not catch up
but ahead of schedule

Wednesday, March 07, 2018

meaning/purpose in life and self-transcendence
Paul Wong
Gary Reker

Erik Erikson's work on self-integrity with age.
Paul Baltes for his lifespan developmental theory

Saturday, March 03, 2018

compare latent mean across groups

for two groups, e.g., male vs female

  1. use the baseline model (factor model without any constraints, the configural invariance model) as input to Amos  (one factor loading of each factor is fixed at 1 to establish the scale, this is automatically set by Amos, I just leave it alone, do nothing for this; if full scalar/intercepts invariance exist --- I just leave intercept alone, do nothing for this)
  2. analyze properties --- choose estimate mean and intercept
  3. Amos preset the latent means of all factors as zero; Initially, the factor means are fixed at 0 for both men and women (Amos automatically set the values of latent means (s1,s2,s3 of all three groups, i.e., nine latent means) to be zero)---It is not possible to estimate factor means for both groups.
  4. you need to pick one group, e.g., men, and fix its factor mean to a constant, e.g., 0
  5. free women's latent mean to be freely estimated --- remove the constraints on the female's latent mean
for three groups, e.g., public, private, nonprofit

after knowing that latent means differ across three groups, now I need to identify which latent mean is different across three groups and how much is the difference (Amos manual model 24b)
  1. use the baseline model (factor model without any constraints, the configural invariance model) as input to Amos (one factor loading of each factor is fixed at 1 to establish the scale, this is automatically set by Amos, I just leave it alone, do nothing for this; if full scalar/intercepts invariance exist --- I just leave intercept alone, do nothing for this)
  2. analyze properties --- choose estimate mean and intercept
  3. Amos preset the latent means of all factors as zero; Initially, the factor means are fixed at 0 for both men and women (Amos automatically set the values of latent means (s1,s2,s3 of all three groups, i.e., nine latent means are set to be zero)---It is not possible to estimate factor means for three groups.
  4. If I first use public sector as the reference group and thus make the means of s1,s2,s3 of public sector to be zero. but free the preset value of zero for s1,s2,s3, of private and nonprofit groups
  5. analyze---multiple group analysis
  6. analyze---calculate estimates
  7. ignore indentification problem---two models can't be fitted to the data (two models are unidentified: 1. the unconstrained model with no cross-group constraints, 2. the measurement weights model with factor loadings held equal across groups) 左上角顯示 ××:unconstrained 及 ××: measurement weights ---- 不管它
  8. in the text output ---  check unstandardized parameter estimates (as shown in the text output)---click estimate/scalar/means --- in the low left corner, click measurement intercepts (are equal across groups) --- click private in the above box (since public sector's means were fixed at 0, so only the private and nonprofit's means were estimated)
  9. for example,  I fixed the s1's mean of public sector at zero,if private sector has an estimated s1 mean=  –1.07.  Thus, private sector's mean of s1 is estimated to be 1.07 units below public sector's S1 mean. This difference is not affected by the initial decision to fix the public sector's s1 mean at 0. If we had fixed public sector s1's mean at 10, the private sector s1's mean would have been estimated to be 8.934 (10 minus 1.07). If we had fixed the private sector's s1 mean at 0, the public sector s1's mean would have been estimated to be 1.07. 
  10. We have to test whether the difference between s1 mean of public sector (set as zero as the reference group) and s1 mean of private sector is statistically significant. Since the public sector s1 mean was fixed at 0, we need to ask only whether the private sector s1 mean differs significantly from 0 (public sector). --- using t statistic
  11. For example, from the text output --- the private sector's s1 mean has a critical ratio of -1.209 and p= 0.226, p is larger than 0.05 (0.01, 0.001) --- thus it is not significantly different from 0 (public sector's s1 mean), that is, it is not significantly different from the s1 mean of public sector.
  12. for example, from the text output, if the output p=.066 (s2 of private sector), p is larger then 0,05, thus the difference between s2 of public sector and s2 of private sector is significant at 0.05 level; also, if from the text output, the estimate of s2 of private sector is 0.96, we can say that the mean of s2 of private sector is estimated 0.96 units above the mean of s2 of public sector, 
  13. first check whether the difference is significant, second, explain the difference
  14. You cannot estimate all means for three groups at once. But the difference between the mean of public, private, and nonprofit sectors will be the same, no matter which (group's) mean you fix and no matter what value (zero, 1, 2, 3...) you fix for it.
  15. as our interest is in estimating the difference in latent means,fixing one value and estimating the other is sufficient. The usual solution is to fix at zero the latent mean, treating it as a reference group and then all other latent group means are estimated as deviations from the reference mean (Bollen, 1989).That is, whether the latent mean of another group is significantly difference from zero (the latent mean of the reference group), using t test value.
  16. Next, use private sector as the reference group
  17. Nest, use nonprofit sector as the reference group
Happy Birthday

scalar invariance

full scalar invariance
three groups

in Amos
  1. analysis properties (check analyze mean and properties) 
  2. set intercepts of all variables to be equal (except the intercept of the variable with the factor loading of 1 is set to be zero); set the intercepts of the indicators (whose loading is 1) to zero to identify the model (set to zero for each group, therefore, s1, s2, s3 for three groups, thus, six intercepts are set to zero, respectively, in object properties, unclick all group
  3. leave the object properties of mean of the latent factor (s1,s2,s3, totally six means for three groups) empty (unclick all group), let the six means to be freely estimated (ps, Amos preset the six mean to be zero, thus, you need to delete the zero of in the parameter box)--- six latent factor means are emptied, set to be freely estimated

Thursday, March 01, 2018


she left harvard, he got to stay

Wednesday, February 28, 2018

How to Calculate a Correlation Matrix in Excel (Three or More Variables)

How to make a report-ready correlation matrix quickly using SPSS and Excel

see you again

Work, Aging and Retirement

This is a quick reminder that Work, Aging and Retirement will be publishing a Special Issue on “Age and Emotions in Organizations. The call for papers is available at The deadline for proposal submissions is March 31, 2018, and full paper submissions will be due on January 31, 2019. Submissions can be uploaded to the Manuscript Central/Scholar One website (

Thursday, February 22, 2018


行政院勞工委員會; 臺灣地區身心障礙者勞動狀況調查



Wayne Dyer - How to Be a No-Limit Person


內政部統計月報 ----

Wednesday, February 21, 2018


Review of Public Personnel Administration
The American Review of Public Administration
Public performance and management review
Public personnel management
Public policy and administration
Public management review
Public administration
Public administration and development
Public administration review
International Journal of Public Administration
International Journal of Public Sector Management.

Tuesday, February 20, 2018


Sunday, February 18, 2018

Grabosky and Rosenbloom, 1975
Sigelnuti, 1976
Sigelman and Grnig, 1977
Cayer and Sigelman, 1980
Salruiein. 1983
Dometrius, 1984
Saltzstein, 1986
Rehfuss, 1986
Riccucci, 1987

Grabosky. Peter N.. and David H. Rosenbloom (1975). "Racial and Ethnic Integration in the Federal Service." Social Science Quarterly 56: 71-84.

Sigelman. Lee (1976). "The Curious Case of Women in State and Local Government." Social Science Quarter^ 57: 591-604.

Sigelman, Lee. and Alben K. Katnig (1977). "Black Education and Bureaucratic Etnployment."
Social Science Quarterly ")%: 858-863

Cayer, N. Joseph, and Lee Sigelman (1980). "Minorities and Women in State and Local Government: 1973-1975." Public Administration Review 40(5): 443-450

Saltzstein. Grace Hall, (1983). "Personnel Directors and Female Employment Representation,"
Social Science Quarterly 64: 734-746
(1986). "FemaleMayorsand Women in Municipal Jobs." American Joumal of Political Science 30: 140-164

Dometrius, Nelson C (1984). "Minorities and Women Among State Agency Leaders." SocialScieme Quarterly d^i 127-137

Rehfuss, John A. (1986). "A Representative Bureaucracy? Women and Minority Executives in California Career Service." Public Administration Review 46{5yA5AA6O.

Riccucci, Norma M. (1987). "Black Employment in Municipal Work Forces." Public Administration Quarterly 11: 76-89.
race and ethnicity as the demographic characteristics of interest, but similar approaches were later applied to examine the representation of women in public service (Bayes 1989; Cayer and Sigelman 1980; Daley 1984; Davis and West 1985; Dye and Renick 1981; Eribes, Cayer, Karnig, and Welch 1989; Hale and Kelly 1989; Hale, Kelly, and Burgess 1989; Hindera 1993a and 1993b; Kawar 1989; Kranz 1976; Krislov 1974; Meier 1975; Nachmias and Rosenbloom 1973; Rosenbloom and Kinnard 1977; Smith 1980; Stanley 1989; Thompson 1978).

Daley, Dennis. 1984 "Political and Occupational Barriers to the Implementation of Affirmative Action: Administrative, Executive, and Legislative Attitudes toward Representative Bureaucracy." Review of Public Personnel Administration 4:(summer):4-15.

Davis, Chaites, and West, Jonathon. 1985 "Implementing Public Programs: Equal Opportunity, Affirmative Action, and Administrative Policy Options." Review of Public Personnel Administration
4:(summer): 16-30.

Dye, Thomas, and Renick, James. 1981 "Political Power and City Jobs: Determinants of Minority
Employment." Social Science Quarterly 62:(Sept.):475-86.

Hindera, John J. 1993a "Representative Bureaucracy: Further Evidence of Active Representation in the EEOC District Offices." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 3:(Oct.):415-29.

1993b "Representative Bureaucracy: Imprimis Evidence of Active Representation in the EEOC District Offices." Social Science Quarterly 74:(Mar.):95-108

Rosenbloom, David H., and Featherstonhaugh, Jeannette G. 1977 "Passive and Active Representation
in the Federal Service: A Comparison of Blacks and Whites." Social Science Quarterly 57:(Mar.):873-82.

Smith, Russell.1980 "Representative Bureaucracy: A Research Note on Demographic Representation in State Bureaucracies." Review of Public Personnel Administration 1:

Thompson, Frank J.1978 "Civil Servants and the Deprived: Socio-Political and Occupational Explanations of Attitudes Toward Minority Hiring." American Journal of Politleal Science 22:(May):325-47.

Saturday, February 17, 2018

reference, gender, disability, race

Dometrius, N. C. (1984). MINORITIES AND WOMEN AMONG STATE AGENCY LEADERS. Social Science Quarterly, 65(1), 127-137.

Cayer, N. J., & Sigelman, L. (1980). Minorities and Women in State and Local Government: 1973-1975. Public Administration Review, 40(5), 443-450.

Dometrius, N. C., & Sigelman, L. (1984). Assessing Progress toward Affirmative Action Goals in State and Local Government: A New Benchmark. Public Administration Review, 44(3), 241-246

Hutchins, M., & Sigelman, L. (1981). BLACK EMPLOYMENT IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS. Social Science Quarterly, 62(1), 79-87.

Meier, K. J. (1975). Representative Bureaucracy: An Empirical Analysis. American Political Science Review, 69(2), 526-542.

Meier, K. J., & Nigro, L. G. (1976). Representative Bureaucracy and Policy Preferences: A Study in the Attitudes of Federal Executives. Public Administration Review, 36(4), 458-469.

Rehfuss, J. A. (1986). A Representative Bureaucracy? Women and Minority Executives in California Career Service. Public Administration Review, 46(5), 454-460


政府資料開放平台, Open Data

Friday, February 16, 2018


「HQ高音质」王菲/那英 - 岁月(电影《如影随心》主题曲)「春晚歌曲抢先听」


Thursday, February 15, 2018


82年11 月3 日,立法院法制委員會審議公務人員考試法修正草案,時任立法委員的陳總統水扁先生提案增列舉辦殘障特考的法源,經於84 年12 月26 日完成三讀,85 年1 月17 日公布。本部隨即配合於同年(85年)7 月舉辦首次公務人員特種考試殘障人員考試

85 年1 月17 日,公務人員考試法修正公布,為落實憲法及身心障礙者保護法(原殘障福利法)對於身心障礙者就業權益之保障,提供身心障礙者擔任公職的機會,增列得舉行公務人員特種考試,以照顧身心障礙者之就業權益。


身心障礙人員考試制度白皮書 (2006)


中華民國一百零六年十二月二十二日考試院考臺組壹一字第 106000796
  41  號令訂定發布全文 17 條;並自發布日施行

excel 表格中數字, 轉貼word表格


王菲 那英 -《歲月》2018央視春晚完整視頻 Faye Wong Na Ying 2018 CCTV Gala









1955年 考試院公布「特種考試臺灣省山地人民應山地行政人員考試規則」
立法目的:台灣省政府為鼓勵山地人民從事山地行政工作起見訂定本規則。 考試等級:本考試為低於普通考試之特種考試。

1956年 首次舉行「特種考試臺灣省山地人民應山地行政人員考試」,為低於普通考試之特





1970年 考試院修正「特種考試臺灣省山地行政人員考試規則」,為相當於普通考試之特種



1974年 考試院將「特種考試臺灣省山地行政人員考試規則」修正為「特種考試臺灣省山地


1976年 考試院配合簡併公務人員特種考試政策,改於特種考試臺灣省基層公務人員考試設






1988年 考試院訂定「七十七年特種考試臺灣省山地行政及技術人員考試規則」



1991年 考試院發布「八十年特種考試臺灣省山胞行政暨技術人員考試規則」。









89年4月25日公布之憲法增修條文對原住民族就業權益明文予以保障,為配合憲法對於原住民族保障之規範,民國90 年12 月26日修正公布之公務人員考試法第3條,正式將原住民族參加公務人員考試取得公務人員任用資格予以特別立法保障,明定為照顧原住民族之就業權益,得為具原住民身分者舉辦封閉性之公務人員特考

2001年 立法院修正公布公務人員考試法第3條,將原住民族參加公務人員考試取得公務人


90 年為因應用人機關需求及參照其他公務人員特考體例與專技人員特考有所區分,再增列五等考試,並設置一般行政、一般民政、社會行政、人事行政、地政、教育行政、經濟行政、
林業等8 類科取才,使本項考試等別架構更為完整






90年10月31日公布施行之「原住民族工作權保障法」,針對原住民族工作權之保障予以法制化。依該法規定,各級政府機關、公立學校及公營事業機構,除位於澎湖、金門、連江縣外,其僱用約僱人員、駐衛警察、技工、駕駛、工友、清潔工、收費管理員、其他不須具公務人員任用資格之非技術性工級職務,每滿100 人應有原住民1 人



2004年 考試院將考試名稱定為「公務人員特種考試原住民族考試


93 年為提昇本項考試考選原住民族人才質量,羅致原住民優秀人才擔任政府高級文官,復增列一等考試及二等考試,並分別設置一般行政、一般民政、土木工程3 類科及一般行政、一般民政、社會行政、文化行政、教育行政、農藝、林業、土木工程8 類科。於此同時並增列原設三等及四等考試部分類科,包括91 年2 月27 日修正本項考試規則增列三等考試教育行政、衛生行政、地籍測量、機械工程4 類科,四等考試會計審計、圖書資訊管理2 類科,五等考試教育行政、經濟行政2 類科;93 年8 月23 日修正本項考試規則增列三等考試文化行政、交通行政、電力工程、環保技術4 類科;四等考試文化行政、教育行政、農藝、地籍測量、家政5 類科;五等考試圖書館管理、電子工程2 類科。並由本部協調銓敘部、行政院人事行政局,研修公務人員特種考試原住民族考試規則相關附表,將其他公務人員特考部分需用名額,改透過原住民族特考取才



並於91 年至94 年間連續每年舉辦原住民族特考各乙次,以擴大原住民族參加國家考試之機會。

95 年7 月再次增列一等考試原住民族行政、二等考試原住民族行政、三等考試原住民族行政、自然保育等2 類科、四等考試原住民族行政、新聞、法警、交通行政、外交行政人員、僑務行政、自然保育、機械工程等8 類科、五等考試原住民族行政、錄事、庭務員及會計等4

又本項考試新增設一等及二等考試後,因用人機關迄未提報職缺辦理考試,於95 年3 月20 日本部於與行政院人事行政局第9 次業務會談中爰提出「為強化考試效能及甄拔優秀人才,建請公務人員特種考試原住民族考試提報高一等級職缺及增設相關類科」一案,請該局協調行政院原住民族委員會徵詢行政院所屬機關擴大提報職缺,以強化考試效能。並經該局於同年3 月27 日舉行之「95 年行政院暨所屬各機關(構)學校足額進用原住民第3 次對策會議」決議由行政院原住民族委員會考量於95 年公務人員特種考試原住民族考試提列二等考試職缺。






Wednesday, February 14, 2018


1958 年起考試院
數統計資料,不過人口特性的性別總數資料約自 1975 年起才

性別統計資料的內容和格式大致上到 2000 年

全國公務人員總數, 分別服務於行政機關、公營事業機構(包括交通、金融和生產事業)、醫療機構和公立學校等四類機關

若追溯至性別統計資料最早可得的 1975 年 (wrong, actually ROC 62)

bureaucratic representation index

Pitts, David W. 2005. “Representative Bureaucracy, Ethnicity,
and Public Schools Examining Representation Linked?”
Administration & Society 8 (2): 201-27.
Mary E. Guy(1994)是
女性無法向高層流動的玻璃天花板(glass ceilings),第二類
原因是性別刻板印象所產生的工作隔離牆(glass walls),第
三類原因是工作性質讓女性陷入粘黏樓地板(sticky floors)而
社交活動等造成女人憂心的陷阱門(trap doors)。這四個現象

Guy, Mary E. 1994. “Organizational Architecture, Gender, and
Women’s Career.” Review of Public Personnel Administration
14 (2): 77-90.

passive, active representation

1970 年代起迄今,政府部門代表性文官理論的主張開
常證實正向關係(Dolan 2000; Meier 1993; Selden 1997)

Dolan, Julie A. 2000. “The Senior Executive Service: Gender,
Attitudes, and Representative Bureaucracy.” Journal of Public
Administration Research and Theory 10: 513-29.

Meier, Kenneth J. 1993. “Latinos and Representative Bureaucracy.”
Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 3: 393-415.

(Bradbury and Kellough 2007; Seldon et al. 1998; Wilkins and
Williams 2008)

Bradbury, Mark, and J. Edward Kellough. 2007. “Representative
Bureaucracy: Exploring the Potential for Active Representation
in Local Government.” Journal of Public Administration
Research and Theory 18: 697-714.

Seldon, Sally C., Jeffrey L. Brudney, and J. Edward Kellough.
1998. “Bureaucracy as a Representative Institution: Toward a
Reconciliation of Bureaucratic Government and Democratic
Theory.” American Journal of Political Science 42: 717-44.

Wilkins, Vicky M., and Brian N. Williams. 2008. “Black or Blue:
Racial Profiling and Representative Bureaucracy.” Public
Administration Review 68: 654-64.

不過,不少文獻的確報告了消極代表性和積極代表性間的關係。例如,更多女性教師數量比例會增進女性學生的學科測驗成績(Keiser et al. 2002),女性警察高比例會
增加性侵者被捕數(Meier and Nicholson-Crotty 2006),女性
機關首長會較男性首長更優先處理女性政策議題(Saidel and
Loscocco 2005),犯罪執法領域相關研究證實效果確實來自消
極代表性(Bradbury and Kellough 2011),兒童保護協助機構
助等工作(Wilkins and Keiser 2006),各州政府中女性從政實
(鄭麗嬌 2012)。韓國案例也發現女性公務人力比例對於政
and Miller 2013)

Keiser, Lael, Vicky M. Wilkins, Kenneth J. Meier, and Catherine
Holland. 2002. “Lipstick and Logarithms: Gender, Identity,
and Representative Bureaucracy.” American Political Science
Review 96 (3): 553-65.

Meier, Kenneth J., and J. Nicholson-Crotty. 2006. “Gender,
Representative Bureaucracy, and Law Enforcement: The Case
of Sexual Assault.” Public Administration Review 65 (6): 850-

Saidel, J. R., and K. Loscocco. 2005. “Agency Leaders, Gendered
Institutions and Representative Bureaucracy.” Public
Administration Review 65: 158-70.

Bradbury, Mark, and J. Edward Kellough. 2011. “Representative
Bureaucracy: Assessing the Evidence on Active Representation.”
American Review of Public Administration 41: 157-67.

Wilkins, Vicky M., and Lael R. Keiser. 2006. “Linking Passive and
Active Representation for Gender: The Case of Child Support
Agencies.” Journal of Public Administration Research and
Theory 16: 87-102.

Park, Sanghee. 2012. “Does Gender Matter? The Effect of Gender
Representation of Public Bureaucracy on Government
Performance.” American Review of Public Administration 43
(2): 221-42.

Andrews, Rhys, and Karen Johnston Miller. 2013. “Representative
Bureaucracy, Gender, and Policing: The Case of Domestic
Violence Arrests in England.” Public Administration 91 (4):

受消極代表性的影響(Lim 2006)。Thompson(1976)很早
等等。稍後論者(Keiser et al. 2002; Meier and Stewart 1992)也

Lim, Hong-hai. 2006. “Representative Bureaucracy: Rethinking
Substantive Effects and Active Representation.” Public
Administration Review 66 (2): 193-204.

Thompson, Frank J. 1976. “Minority Groups in Public Bureaucracies:
Are Passive and Active the Link Between Representation and
Performance.” Administration & Society 39 (4): 497-526.

Keiser, Lael, Vicky M. Wilkins, Kenneth J. Meier, and Catherine
Holland. 2002. “Lipstick and Logarithms: Gender, Identity,
and Representative Bureaucracy.” American Political Science
Review 96 (3): 553-65.

Meier, Kenneth J., and Joseph Stewart Jr. 1992. “The Impact of
Representative Bureaucracies: Educational Systems and Public
Policies.” American Review of Public Administration 22 (3):

性(symbolic)」(Bradbury and Kellough 2011; Theobald and
Haider-Markel 2009)。象徵代表性認為,只要機關人力組合
意度感受就會增加(Gade and Wilkins 2013)。警局內家暴處
公平等感受就增高(Riccucci, Van Ryzin, and Lavena 2014)。
警察作為更具正當性(Theobald and Haider-Markel 2009)

Bradbury, Mark, and J. Edward Kellough. 2011. “Representative
Bureaucracy: Assessing the Evidence on Active Representation.”
American Review of Public Administration 41: 157-67.

Theobald, Nick A., and Donald P. Haider-Markel. 2009. “Race,
bureaucracy, and symbolic representation: Interactions
between citizens and police.” Journal of Public Administration
Research and Theory 19: 409-26.

Gade, Daniel M., and Vicky M. Wilkins. 2013. “Where did You
Serve? Veteran Identity, Representative Bureaucracy, and
Vocational Rehabilitation.” Journal of Public Administration
Research and Theory 23: 267-88.

Riccucci, Norma M., Gregg G. Van Ryzin, and Cecilia F.
Lavena. 2014. “Representative Bureaucracy in Policing:
Does It Increase Perceived Legitimacy?” Journal of Public
Administration Research and Theory 24: 537-51.

女性高階文官會比較支持女性議題(Dolan, 2000),並且女性行政人員對兒童照顧、公平給付、工作分享與彈性工時會更具敏感度(Hale, Kelly, and Burgess, 1989; Kawar, 1989; Stanley, 1989)。另外,在教育上,黑人教師會更友善地對待黑人學生(Meier and Stewart, 1992)。在間接影響部分,也有研究指出個人會依其特質作成有利於同特質民眾偏好的政策或行政行
為,仍要依個人所處的環境、組織與個人特性而定。例如大環境對該人口特質的關心程度(Thompson, 1976)、人員對其特質的角色認知強度(Selden,Brudney, and Kellough, 1998)、組織中同特質的人數多寡(Hindera and Young,1998; Meier, 1993)、人員所處的機關(Romzek and Hendricks, 1982)、人員在組織內的時間長短與其所擔任的職位層級高低( Mosher, 1968; Thompson, 1976; Meier and Stewart, 1992; Meier, 1993; Pitts, 2007)、人員能否獲得組織內外的
政治支持(Henderson, 1979)以及人員在組織的年資(Dolan, 2000)等。換言之,在這些因素配合下,個別公務人員才會作出對有利於相同特質民眾的決策或結果。

Dolan, Julie. (2000). The Senior Executive Service: Gender, Attitudes, and Representative
Bureaucracy. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 10 (3), 513-530.

Hale, Mary M., Rita Mae Kelly, and Jayne Burgess. (1989). Women in the Arizona Executive Branch of Government. In Mary M. Hale and Rita Mae Kelly, eds. Gender, Bureaucracy, and Democracy:
Careers and opportunity in the Public Sector. Conn: Greenwood.

Kawar, Amal. (1989). Women in the Utah Executive Branch. In Mary M. Hale and Rita Mae Kelly, eds. Gender, Bureaucracy, and Democracy: Careers and opportunity in the Public Sector. Conn: Greenwood.

Stanley, Jeanie R. (1989). “Women in the Texas Executive Branch of Government.” In Mary M. Hale and Rita Mae Kelly, eds. Gender, Bureaucracy, and Democracy: Careers and opportunity in the Public Sector. Conn: Greenwood.

Meier Kenneth J. and Joseph Stewart Jr. (1992). The Impact of Representative Bureaucracies: Educational Systems and Public Policies. American Review of Public Administration, 22 (3), 157-

Thompson Frank J. (1976). Minority Groups in Public Bureaucracies: Are Passive and Active Representation Linked? Administration & Society, 8(2): 201-227.

Selden, Sally Coleman, Jeffrey L. Brudney and J. Edward Kellough. (1998). Bureaucracy as a Representative Institution: Toward a Reconciliation of Bureaucratic Government and Democratic
Theory. American Journal of Political Science, 42(3), 717-744.

Hindera, John J. and Cheryl D. Young. (1998). Representative Bureaucracy: The Theoretical Implications of Statistical Interaction. Political Research Quarterly, 51 (3), 655-671.

Meier, Kenneth J. (1993). Latinos and Representative Bureaucracy: Testing the Thompson and Henderson Hypotheses. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 3 (4), 393-414.

Romzek, Barbara S. and J. Stephen Hendricks. (1982). Organizational Involvement and Representative Bureaucracy: Can We Have It Both Ways? The American Political Science Review,
76(1): 75-82.

Mosher, F. C. (1968). Democracy and the Public Service. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pitts, David W. (2007). Representative Bureaucracy, Ethnicity, and Public Schools Examining the Link Between Representation and Performance. Administration & Society, 39(4), 497-526.

Hindera(1993)研究美國1987-1990 年間EEOC分支機關的申訴案件中,各分支機關的白人、黑人與拉丁裔的調查員比例對白人、黑人與拉丁裔的申訴案的影響,他發現當機關內黑人與拉丁裔調查員比例愈高時,該機關接受黑人與拉丁裔申訴案也會愈高。又如Dolan(2000)研究美國女性高階文官的態度,發現機關內女性高階文官愈多,則機關也會比較關心女性議題。另外,Meier 與Bohte(2001)研究美國德州670 個學區也發現少數族群教師比例愈高且組織控制幅度愈大時,則少數族群學生通過學測的比例也會愈高。

Hindera, John J. (1993). Representative Bureaucracy: Further Evidence of Active Representation in the EEOC District Offices. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 3 (4), 415-429.

Meier Kenneth J. and John Bohte. (2001).Structure and Discretion: Missing Links in Representative Bureaucracy. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 11(4), 455-470.

Waldo, Dwight. 1952. “Development of Theory of Democratic
Administration.” American Political Science Review 46 (1):