Saturday, October 21, 2017


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02 2657 2362

Wednesday, October 18, 2017

普通考試, Junior Civil Service Examinations

87至94年, 普通考試採分試制度

multi-stage examination system was introduced from 1998 to 2005
one-time examinations was introduced in 2006

高等考試, Senior Civil Service Examiniations

7984, 高考分一, 二級 (高考一級為碩士以上報考,高考二級為大專畢業)
民國 79 年至 84 年,高等考試分一、二級考試(相當現行之高考二級、三級考試)

自85年起, 高等考試分為一, 二, 三級 (分別由博士, 碩士, 學士報考)
87至94年, 高等三級考試採分試制度

senior civil service examinations were classified into level 1, 2, and 3 in 1996
a multi-stage system was introduced from 1998 to 2005
one-time exam was introduced in 2006 for the level 3 civil service examinations

Tuesday, October 17, 2017

考試制度, 考選制度

moex library
中國考試史文獻集成(第七卷 民國)
中國考試通史(卷四 民國)
國家考試之理論與實務 (本書外借中)

active representation, bureaucracy

A representative bureaucracy could have more efficacy if passive or “sociological” representation could be transformed into active representation, through which the interests of particular groups could be more actively pursued by administrators holding similar values (Krislov 1974; Mosher 1982).

how bureaucracies with passive representation on the part of certain minority groups demonstrate the transformation of passive representation into more actively representative outcomes

administrators’ discretionary authority can be directed toward more representative and possibly more equitable outcomes for the people they represent (Denhardt and deLeon 1995; Saltzstein 1979).

Dolan 2000; Selden 1997; Selden, Brudney, and Kellough 1998; Meier and Nigro 1976; Meier, Wrinkle, and Polinard 1999

Rosenbloom and Kinnard (1977) found that high-ranking minorities in the Department of Defense tended to believe they should actively address the special needs of minority populations.

Meier and Stewart (1992) found a significant relationship between the presence of African American teachers and the ability groupings of children, with more African American teachers being positively associated with more African American students being placed in gifted classes. They also found
that more African American teachers were positively associated with higher student performance for these groups.

Meier (1993) found the relationship of active representation of minorities at the principal level to student outcomes was nonlinear, concluding there needed to be a critical mass of Latino administrators in schools in order to affect the minority student performance

Hindera (1993a, 1993b) found that more passive representation on the part of African Americans at the commission led to more representative outcomes for these groups, measured by the percentage of charges filed on the behalf of these groups

Selden (1997) and Selden, Brudney, and Kellough (1998) found that certain personal and organizational characteristics led some administrators to perceive their role in the organization as that of a minority representative, a role that encompasses the active representation of minority interests. They found that minorities, in particular, were more likely to adopt a minority representative role.

Brudney, Hebert, and Wright’s (2000) study of state administrators found that race, ethnicity, and gender affected the role adopted by the administrators, with nonwhite administrators having a more expansionist orientation for their agencies, as well as a direct effect on the  attitudes and behaviors of these individuals.

Sowa, J. E., & Selden, S. C. (2003). Administrative Discretion and Active Representation: An Expansion of the Theory of Representative Bureaucracy. Public Administration Review, 63(6), 700-710

passive representation, bureaucracy

symbolic importance of passive representation

J. Donald Kingsley (1944)
David Levitan (1946)
Norton Long (1952)
Paul Van Riper (1958)
Krislov (1974)
Krislov and Rosenbloom (1981)

benefits that could arise through a representative public workforce
Meier and Nigro 1976
Rosenbloom and Featherstonhaugh 1977
Selden 1997

Sowa, J. E., & Selden, S. C. (2003). Administrative Discretion and Active Representation: An Expansion of the Theory of Representative Bureaucracy. Public Administration Review, 63(6), 700-710.

representative bureaucracy,

 a theory that maintains bureaucratic power can be made more responsive to the public if the personnel who staff administrative agencies reflect the demographic characteristics of the public they serve (Denhardt and deLeon 1995; Krislov 1974; Krislov and Rosenbloom 1981; Meier 1975;
Nachmias and Rosenbloom 1973; Saltzstein 1979; Selden 1997; Stein 1986).

Saltzstein, Grace H. 1979. Representative Bureaucracy and Bureaucratic Responsibility: Problems and Prospects. Administration and Society 10(4): 464–75.

required agencies to measure the representativeness of their workforce and to attempt to
correct for underrepresentation (Ingraham and Rosenbloom 1993; Ingraham 1995)

theory of representative bureaucracy maintains that other public agencies, while not designed to be active representatives of certain groups, can transform the passive representation of certain groups into active representation to achieve more representative outcomes (Meier and Stewart 1992; Meier and Bohte 2001).

Many studies have examined passive representation in U.S. administrative agencies and explored the translation of passive representation into active representation.

#Sowa, J. E., & Selden, S. C. (2003). Administrative Discretion and Active Representation: An Expansion of the Theory of Representative Bureaucracy. Public Administration Review, 63(6), 700-710.

(Mosher 1968; Krislov 1974; Meier and Nigro 1976; Thompson 1976; Rosenbloom and Featherstonhaugh 1977; Saltzstein 1979; Rehfuss 1986; Meier 1993; Riccucci and Saidel 1997).

the representative-bureaucracy construct should not be limited only to those within the bureaucratic arena by virtue of their career civil service status (Dometrius 1986; Riccucci and Saidel 1997

#Saidel, J. R., & Loscocco, K. (2005). Agency Leaders, Gendered Institutions, and Representative Bureaucracy. Public Administration Review, 65(2), 158-170

Monday, October 16, 2017

gender, managerial behaviors and leadership

managerial behaviors and leadership traits of men and women
the private sector (Harlan and Weiss 1982), state legislatures (Cammisa and Reingold 2004), state agencies (Bowling et al. 2006; Brudney, Hebert, and Wright 2000; Bullard and Wright 1993),
local governments (Fox and Schuhmann 1999), school districts (Keiser et al. 2002; Meier,
Mastracci, and Wilson 2006; Meier, O’Toole, and Goerdel 2006; Meier and Wilkins 2002),
and law enforcement agencies (Meier and Nicholson-Crotty 2006).

gender differences in organizational values, management styles, policy preferences, and leadership strategies (e.g., see Burns 1979; Gilligan 1982; Hatcher 2003; Kathlene 1989, 1995; Rosener 1990, 1995; Thomas 1994).

Women offer notable emotional labor to an organization (Bellas 1999; Guy and Newman 2004; Meier, Mastracci, and Wilson 2006), have different motivations for work in the public sector (DeHart-Davis, Marlowe, and Pandey 2006), are more democratic (Bass and Avolio 1993), and are ‘‘less hierarchical and more participatory, interactional, flexible, consociational, and multifaceted’’ (Meier, O’Toole, and Goerdel 2006, 25).

In a study of female versus male accountants, Burke and Collins (2000) found that women were more likely to report using an interactive style of management, which resulted in more effective coaching, development, and communication.

Applebaum, Audet, and Miller (2003) observed that women’s leadership styles differ from men’s and noted that both genders can learn from each other. Eagly, Karau, and Johnson (1992) found that although female principals scored higher than male principals on measures of task-oriented leadership style, more similarity existed on measures of interpersonally oriented style. The
most significant difference was related to the tendency to lead democratically or autocratically,
with female principals adopting a more democratic (or participative) style than their
male counterparts. Although Mandell and Pherwani (2003) did not note significant differences
in the transformational leadership scores of male and female managers, they did find
significant differences between the genders with respect to emotional intelligence.

whether passive representation of a subset of the population (i.e., women) leads
to policy outcomes more in line with their specific needs and preferences (Pitkin 1967).
Within this vein, there are numerous findings and conclusions (Dolan and Rosenbloom
2003; Kingsley 1944; Krislov and Rosenbloom 1981; Meier and Bohte 2001; Miller, Kerr,
and Reid 1999; Pitkin 1967; Riccucci and Meyers 2004; Riccucci and Saidel 1997; Selden
1997; Selden, Brudney, and Kellough 1998; Sigelman 1976).

Jacobson, W. S., Palus, C. K., & Bowling, C. J. (2010). A Woman's Touch? Gendered Management and Performance in State Administration. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 20(2), 477-504. doi: 10.1093/jopart/mup017

Sunday, October 15, 2017


家暴案件, domestic violence

入, 出境, 大陸人士



外籍, 大陸配偶

variable transformation

Regression: Transforming Variables

log transformation vs square root transformation, Can I do both?

Can I have the log on Y and square root on X1 and square root on X2, at the same time?
that is,

Yes; you can do this and still achieve a valid model.
Interpretation, however, is complicated by this transformation. Your model then looks like

This means that e.g. a doubling of X1 is associated with an expected increase of Y by a factor exp(β12), all other factors kept equal. For a unit increase in X1 there is no easy interpretation; that depends on the current value of X1.
A unit increase of X3 is associated with an expected increase of Y by a factor exp(β3). So, interpretation is easier without transforming the variables. However, if square root transformation improves the fit or is necessary in some other way, then it is mathematically perfectly correct.