Saturday, April 21, 2018

Erikson 1963  Childhood and society
The portable jung
The basic writings of C.G. Jung

The Internet Archive
Reker, G.T. 1988. Sources of personal meaning among middle-aged and older
adults: A replication. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Gerontological
Society of America, San Francisco
De Vogler & Ebersole, 1980,1981,1983; Ebersole & de Paola, 1987,1989; Ebersole & Sacco, 1983) identified five markers of depth for descriptions of meaning : those which were discussed with more complexity and more specificity were considered to be deep; those which were new, relatively
untried and underdeveloped were considered to be shallow.
#De Vogler, K. L. & Ebersole, P. (1980). Categorisation of college students’ meaning of life. Psychological Reports, 46, 387-390.
#De Vogler, K. L. & Ebersole, P. (1981). Adults’ meaning in life. Psychological Reports, 49, 87-90.
#De Vogler-Ebersole, K. L. & Ebersole, P. (1985). Depth of meaning in life: Explicit rating criteria
#Ebersole, P. & de Paola, S. (1987). Meaning in life categories of later life couples.
#Ebersole, P. & de Paola, S. (1989). Meaning in life depth in the active married elderly
#Ebersole, P. & Sacco, J. (1983). Depth of meaning in life: A preliminary study

People experience greater meaning with age (Hardcastle, 1985; Meier & Edwards, 1974)
Hardcastle, B. (1985). Midlife themes of invisible citizens: An exploration into how ordinary people
make sense of their lives. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25, 45-63.

De Vogler-Ebersole & Ebersole’s (1985) criteria for depth De Vogler-Ebersole & Ebersole’s (1985) rating criteria have the disadvantage of being too subjective (Ebersole & Kobayakawa, 1989),
Tillich (1953) perceived the loss of an ultimate concern (God) in the modern world as ‘the decisive event underlying the search for meaning and the despair of it’ (p. 142)
Steger, Oishi and Kashdan (2009) reported that presence of meaning enhance wellbeing
among all age groups and older people report more meaning in their life

Steger, M. F., Oishi, S. & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Meaning in Life across the Life Span: Levels and
Correlates of Meaning in Life from Emerging Adulthood to Older Adulthood. The Journal of
Positive Psychology, 4(1), 43-52.

Friday, April 20, 2018

Wong, P. T. (1998). Implicit theories of meaningful life and the development of the personal meaning profile. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Prager, E, Bar-Tur, L., & Abramowici,
I. (1997). The Sources of Meaning
Profile (SOMP) with aged subjects
exhibiting depressive symptomatology.
Clinical Gerontologist, 17(3), 25–39.

Reker, G. T., & Wong, P. T. P. (1988). Aging
as an individual process: Toward a theory
of personal meaning. In J. E. Birren & V.
L. Bengtson (Eds.), Emergent theories of
aging (pp. 214–246). New York: Springer
Publishing Company.

Delle Fave, A., Brdar, I., Freire, T., Vella Brodrick, D., & Wissing, M. P. (2010).
The eudaimonic and hedonic components
of happiness: Qualitative and quantitative
findings. Social Indicators Research,
185–207. doi:10.1007/s11205-010-

Bar-Tur, L., & Prager, E. (1996). Sources
of personal meaning in a sample of
young-old and old-old Israelis. Activities,
Adaptation and Aging, 21(2), 59–75.

Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., &
Kaler, M. (2006). The Meaning in Life
Questionnaire: Assessing the presence of
and search for meaning in life. Journal
of Counseling Psychology, 53(1), 80–93.

Pearson, P. R., & Sheffield, B. F. (1974). Purpose-in-life and the Eysenck Personality
Inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 562-564.

Pearson, P. R., & Sheffield, B. F. (1975). Purpose in life and social attitudes in
psychiatric patients. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 330-332

Meier, A., & Edwards, H. (1974). Purpose-in-Life test: Age and sex differences

Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1969; Meier & Edwards, 1974; Pear

Reker, G. T. (1977). The Purpose-In-Life Test in an inmate population: An empirical
investigation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 688-693.

Yarnell, T. D. (1971). Purpose-in-Life test: Further correlates. Journal of Individual
Psychology, 27, 76-79.

Reker, G. T., Peacock, E. J . , & Wong, P. T. (1984, March). Meaning andpurpose
in life across the life span: A cross-sectional multivariate analysis. Paper presented
at the meeting of the Western Gerontological Society, Anaheim,, CA

DeVogler & Ebersole, 1983, Young adolescents’ meaning in life

college students (DeVogler & Ebersole, 1980; Ebersole & DeVogler, 1981)
Ebersole, P., & DeVogler, K. L. (1981). Meaning in life: Category self-ratings

especially, younger adults over 30 years of age
(DeVogler & Ebersole, 1981)
age and sex differences with regard to feeling more purpose in life (Doerris, 1970; Meier & Edwards, 1974; Reker, Peacock, & Wong, 1987) on the Purpose-in-Life Test (Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1964)
#DOERRIES, L. (1970) Purpose in life and social participation. Journal of lndividual Psychology,
26. 50-53.
#MEXER,A ,, & EDWARDSH, . (1974) Purpose In Life test: age and sex differences. Journal of
Clinical Psychology, 30, 384-386.
#CRUMBAUGJH., , & MAHOLICKL, . (1964) An experimental study in existentialism: the psychometric approach to Frankl's concept of noogenic neurosis. Journal of Clinical Psychology,
20, 200-207.

 Yarnell, 1971,Purpose in Life Test: further correlates. Journal of lndividua/ Psychology,
27, 76-79.

assess varying age groups for the sources of meaning (DeVogler & Ebersole, 1981; Ebersole & De Paola, 1987; Hedlund & bei is ole, 1985),

DEVOGLERK, ., & EBERSOLEP. , (1981) Adults life meaning. Psychological Reports, 49, 87-90.
EBERSOLEl,? , & DEPAOLAS, . (1987) Meaning in life categories of later Me couples. Journal of
Psychology, 12, 185-191.
HEDLUNDB, ., & EBERSOLEP, (1983) A test of Levinson's mid-life reevaluation. Journal of
Genetic Psychology, 143, 189-192.

Age differences (Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1964; Yarnell, 1971) and sex differences (Crumbaugh & Maholick, 1964; DeVogler-Ebersole & Ebersole, 1985; Meier & Edwards, 1974) are not always related to purpose in life.
Sources of meaning in life

DeVogler and Ebersole (1980) conceptualised meaning as having eight sources:
understanding (trying to gain more knowledge);
relationship (interpersonal orientation);
service (a helping, giving orientation);
belief (living according to one's beliefs);
expression (through art, athletics, music, writing) ;
obtaining (respect, possessions, responsibility) ;
growth (toward developing personal potentials, obtaining goals) ;
existential-hedonistic (the importance of the pleasures of daily life).
#DeVogler, K. L. and Ebersole, P. 1980. Categorization of college students' meaning of
life. Psychological Reports, 46, 387±390.

seven life goals that Fiske and Chiriboga (1991) delineate in their study of change and continuity
across the life span. The goals most frequently listed in studies that they reviewed were:
achievement and work (including economic rewards, success and social status) ;
good personal relations ;
philosophical and religious goals;
social service ;
freedom from hardship;
security ;
simple comforts;
seeking enjoyment;
personal growth, including learning, knowing and mastering.
#Fiske, M. and Chiriboga, D. A. 1991. Change and Continuity in Adult Life. Jossey-Bass
Publishers, San Francisco.

Thurner (1975), Hedlund and Birren (1984),Klinger (1977) and others, there seems to be a consensus on a few majorsources of meaning, namely personal relationships, personal growth,success, altruism, hedonism, creativity, religion, and legacy.
Thurner, M. 1975. Continuities and discontinuities in value orientation. In Lowenthal,
M. F., Thurner, M., Chiriboga, D. and Associates (eds), Four Stages of Life : A Comparative Study of Women and Men Facing Transitions. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. Yalom, I. 1980. Existential Psychotherapy. Basic Books, New York.

Hedlund, B. and Birren, J. E. 1984. Distribution of types of meaning in life across women. Paper Presented at the Gerontological Society of America, San Antonio,Texas, November

Klinger, E. 1977. Meaning and Void. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Levels of meaning in life
sources of meaning may be categorised according to deductively determined commonality of meaning dimensions. This has produced some discussion as to levels of
personal meaning.

Frankl's (1963) contention, that full meaning in life can be achieved only by transcending self-interest

Baumeister (1991) suggests that meaning starts with the specific andparticular, and gradually works up to the broad, all-encompassing, integrative abstract levels.
Baumeister, R. F. 1991. Meanings of Life. The Guilford Press, New York.

Bengston (1975), in his study of value transmission between the generations, identifies two meaning
continuae: materialism/humanism and individualism/collectivism.

Rokeach (1973) developed a hierarchical meaning system. It is upon this that the categorisation of the Sources of Meaning Profile (SOMP) instrument, used in this study, and presented in an earlier format
(Reker and Wong 1988) , is based.  Four levels of meaning are proposed:
1.the lowest level, containing self-preoccupation with hedonistic pleasures and personal comforts;
2.second level, containing sources reflecting the realisation of personal potential ;
3.third level, containing sources which move beyond the realm of self interests into areas that involve service to others and dedication to larger, societal or political causes;
4.fourth level that  incorporates values that transcends the self and others and encompass cosmic meaning and ultimate purpose.

@Prager, E. (1997a). Sources of Personal Meaning For Older and Younger Australian and Israeli Women: Profiles and Comparisons. Ageing and Society, 17(2), 167-189.

0421, 2018

Dittmann-Kohli and Westerhof’s (1999) study on personal meaning systems indicates that the qualitative content of the cognition used in constructing meaning in life differs considerably between the young and the old, and is the result of the individual response to changing internal and external living conditions. Thus, a major task of old age, according to the authors, is the wisdom to change one’s personal meaning system.
Dittmann-Kohli, F., & Westerhof, G. J. (1999). The personal meaning system in a life-span perspective. In: G. T. Reker, & K. Chamberlain (Eds.), Exploring existential meaning ( pp. 107–123). California: Sage Publications.

the sources of meaning in life (see, for example, Baumeister, 1991; DeVogler & Ebersole, 1980, 1981; Fiske & Chiriboga, 1991; Klinger, 1977; O’Connor & Chamberlain, 1996; Reker & Guppy, 1988; Thurner, 1975).
#Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of life. New York: The Guildford Press.
#DeVogler, K. L., & Ebersole, P. (1980). Categorization of college students’ meaning of life. Psychological Reports, 46, 387–390
#Fiske, M., & Chiriboga, D. A. (1991). Change and continuity in adult life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
#Klinger, E. (1977). Meaning and void. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
#O’Connor, K., & Chamberlain, K. (1996). Dimensions of life meaning: a qualitative investigation at mid-life. British Journal of Psychology, 87, 461–477.
#Reker, G. T., Guppy, B. (1988). Sources of personal meaning among young, middle-aged and older adults. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association on Gerontology, Halifax, Nova Scotia.
#Thurner, M. (1975). Continuities and discontinuities in value orientation. In: M. F. Lowenthal, M. Thurner, D. Chiriboga, et al. (Eds.), Four stages of life: a comparative study of women and men facing transitions ( pp. 176–200). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Reker and Wong (1988) propose that a greater variety of sources of meaning will lead to a greater sense of fulfillment. The authors also define depth of meaning as the degree of self-transcendence that is realized. They suggest four levels of depth in which experiences of meaning could be classified. The first level is self-preoccupation with hedonistic pleasure and comfort; the second level is devotion of time and energy to the realization of personal potential; service to others and commitment to a larger societal or political cause is level 3. The highest level is level 4 — ntertaining values that transcend individuals and encompass cosmic meaning and ultimate purpose.
#Reker, G. T., & Wong, P. T. P. (1988). Aging as an individual process: toward a theory of personal meaning. In: J. Birren, & V. L. Bengston (Eds.), Emergent theories of aging ( pp. 214–246). New York: Springer.

O’Connor and Chamberlain (1996) found clear evidence of differences in depth of meaning ranging from self-preoccupation to the highest level
O’Connor, K., & Chamberlain, K. (1996). Dimensions of life meaning: a qualitative investigation at mid-life. British Journal of Psychology, 87, 461–477.

Reker (1994) and Zika and Chamberlain (1992), who found no differences across age groups (young, middle-aged, and elderly) for a number of sources of meaning
#Reker, G. T. (1994). Logotheory and logotherapy: challenges, opportunities and some empirical findings. The International Forum for Logotherapy, 17, 47–55
#Zika, S., & Chamberlain, K. (1992). On the relation between meaning in life and psychological well-being. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 133–145.

generation, spirituality

Bengston (1975), in his study of value transmission between the generations, identifies two meaning continua: materialism/humanism and individualism/collectivism

Bengston (1975)  Generational and family effects in value socialization. American Sociological Review, 40, 358± 371
Ebersole and DePaola (1989) Meaning in life depth in the active married elderly. Journal of Psychology, 107, 171± 178.

Baum and Stewart (1990), Sources of meaning through the life span. Psychological Reports, 67, 3± 14.

Zika and Chamberlain (1992) On the relation between meaning in life and psychological well being.
British Journal of Psychology, 83, 133± 145.

Berquist et al., In our fifties. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 1993)

DeVogler & Ebersole, 1981 Adults’ meaning in life. Psychological Reports, 49, 87± 90.

Prager, 1995 Exploring personal meaning in an age-differentiated Australian sample: another look at
the Sources of Meaning Profile (SOMP). Journal of Aging Studies, 10, 117± 136

Neugarten’ s (1968) concept of interiority in older individuals
Adult personality: toward a psychology of the life cycle. In: B.L. NEUGARTEN (Ed.), Middle age and aging (pp. 137± 147). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Jung’ s (1963) view of a developmental shift away from instrumental values toward an inner directedness in the later years.
Modern man in search of a soul. New York: Harcourt Brace and World.

Baumeister (1991) Meanings of life. New York: Guilford Press.

Bengston (1975), in his study of value transmission between the generations, identifies two meaning continua: materialism/humanism and individualism/collectivism
Generational and family effects in value socialization. American Sociological Review, 40, 358± 371

Rokeach (1973) developed a hierarchical meaning system, upon which the categorization of the SOMP instrument, as used in this study, is based. He proposes four levels of meaning: the lowest level is that of self-preoccupation with hedonistic pleasures and personal comforts; a second level, containing sources reflecting the realization of personal potential; a third level, containing sources which move beyond the realm of self interests into areas that involve service to others and dedication to larger, societal or political causes; and a fourth level that incorporates values that transcend the self and others and encompass cosmic meaning and ultimate purpose.
# ROKEACH, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.

For the purposes of this paper, the 16 items have been grouped, heuristically, into six categories of meaning, using as a base Rokeach’ s four levels. It is emphasized that these categories serve heuristic or interpretive purposes only and have not been submitted to statistical analysis.

Sources of personal meaning in Life Profile - SOMP (levels based upon Rokeach, 1973)

Level 1:
Item 15. Participation in `hedonistic’ activities (e.g. gambling, parties, etc.)
Item 16. Acquiring material possessions in order to enjoy the good life

Level 2:
Item 2. Meeting basic everyday needs
Item 13. Feeling financially secure

Level 3:
Item 5. Being acknowledged for personal achievements
Item 6. Experiencing personal growth

Level 4:
Item 1. Participation in leisure activities
Item 3. Taking part in creative activities
Item 4. Engaging in personal relationships with family and/or friends

Level 5:
Item 8. Interest in social causes
Item 9. Being of service to others
Item 10. Preserving human values and ideals
Item 11. Preservation of culture and tradition
Item 14. Interest in human rights (humanistic concerns)

Level 6:
Item 7. Taking part in religious activities
Item 12. Leaving a legacy for the next generation

Thursday, April 19, 2018

Reker 1988

Sources of Meaning

Sources of Personal Meaning in Life Profile (SOMP)

1. Participation in Leisure Activities
2. Meeting Basic, Everyday Needs
3. Taking Part in Creative Activities
4. Engaging in Personal Relationships with Family and/or Friends
5. Being Acknowledged for Personal Achievements
6. Experiencing Personal Growth
7. Taking Part in Religious Activities
8. Interest in Social Causes
9. Being of Service to Others
10. Preserving Human Values and Ideals
11. Preservation of Culture and Tradition
12. Leaving a Legacy for the Next Generation
13. Feeling Financially Secure
14. Interest in Human Rights (Humanistic Concerns)
15. Participation in “Hedonistic” Activities (e.g., Gambling, Parties, etc.)
16. Acquiring Material Possessions in Order to Enjoy the Good Life

@Bar-Tur, L., & Prager, E. (1996). Sources of Personal Meaning in a Sample of Young-Old and Old-Old Israelis. Activities, Adaptation & Aging, 21(2), 59-75
@Prager, E. (1996). Exploring personal meaning in an age-differentiated Australian sample: Another look at the Sources Of Meaning Profile (SOMP). Journal of Aging Studies, 10(2), 117-136
Baum, S.K. and Stewart, R. B. (1990). Sources of meaning throughout the life
span. Psychological Reports, 67, 3-14.

Ebersole, P. and DePaola, S. (1989). Mcaning in life depth in the active married
elderly. The Journal of psychology 123, 171-1 78.

Schnell, T. (2009). The Sources of meaning and meaning in life questionnaire  (SoMe): Relations to
demographics and well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 483–499.

personal growth and hedonistic enjoyment as being more important for younger people;
whereas, preserving values and financial security were more important for older individuals (Prager, 1996; Prager, 1998).

Prager, E. (1996). Exploring personal meaning in an age-differentiated Australian sample: Another look at the Sources of Meaning Profile (SOMP). Journal of Aging Studies, 10(2), 117–136.

Prager, E. (1998). Observations of personal meaning sources for Israeli age cohorts. Aging and Mental Health, 2(2), 128-136. doi:10.1080/13607869856812

personal growth was more important for those aged 30 – 39 than those aged 50 – 60+
it has been theorised that identity development and self-exploration is more integral in younger years (Steger et al., 2009).

Steger, M., Oishi, S., & Kashdan, T. (2009). Meaning in life across the life span: Levels and correlates of meaning in life from emerging adulthood to older adulthood. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(1), 43–52. doi:10.1080/17439760802303127

older people place greater importance on practicality and morality (Schnell, 2009), and findings from Bar-Tur and Prager (1994) who found that preserving values, humanistic concerns and financial
security were important in older age.

Bar-Tur, L., & Prager, E. (1996). Sources of personal meaning in a sample of young-old and old-old Israelis. Activities, Adaptation and Aging, 21(2), 59–75. doi:10.1300/J016v21n02_04

Bar-Tur, L., Savaya, R., & Prager, E. (2001). Sources of meaning in life for young and old Israeli Jews and Arabs. Journal of Aging Studies, 15(3), 253-269.

Baum, S. K., & Stewart, R. B. (1990). Sources of meaning through the lifespan. Psychological Reports, 67(1), 3–14. doi:10.2466/PR0.67.5.3-14

Religiosity/spirituality, tradition, practicality, morality and reason have been found to be of greater importance in older age (Schnell, 2009).

older people have been found to most highly endorse personal relationships, preserving values, humanistic concerns and financial security (Bar-Tur & Prager, 1996).

younger people are preoccupied with self-interests such as identity establishment, materialism,
creation of relationships and being productive
whereas in older age, people become more concerned with the well-being of others and humankind in
general, finding community activities, welfare of others and religious activities to be of importance (Prager, 1996).

Zika, S., & Chamberlain, K. (1992). On the relation between meaning in life and psychological well-being. British Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 133-145.

@Grouden, M. E., & Jose, P. E. (2014). How do Sources of Meaning in Life Vary According to Demographic Factors? New Zealand Journal of Psychology 43 (3), 29-38.
Exploring existential meaning optimizing human development across the lifespan
edited by  GT Reker and K Chamberlain


Happiness must ensue. It must follow from commitment and engagement in life-affirming actions.

Finding meaning and purpose in life leads to happiness, not the other way around

If you want to be a happier person, try to be more like a happy person

Peterson, R. A. (2005). In Search of Authenticity*. Journal of Management Studies, 42(5), 1083-1098.

mid-life gender role reversals

Carl Jung was one of the first to point out the importance of role reversals at mid-life (1925, 1929, 1930). He noted that middle-aged men begin to struggle with long-suppressed feminine elements of their personality, while women confront their masculine strengths.

Jung pointed out, the individual's confrontation with elements of the self that have been repressed or neglected for various reasons, whether these traits are masculine, feminine, timid, extraverted,

Jolted by the experience, he had begun reflecting on his life, and realized how he had always given in to other people, acquiescing to their demands, and trying to be "the nice guy." He soon began changing his ways, insisting on what he wanted, and expressing his anger for the first time, despite his fears that people might not approve. His aggressive side, so long repressed, began emerging.

an important task at mid-fife is coming to terms with the dark, demonic side of life.

the struggle with the shadow

middle-aged protagonists use their new knowledge of healing wisely,

Wednesday, April 18, 2018

US General Social Survey​

NORC at the University of Chicago

Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Manual for Faith Development Research, 2004

How to Conduct a Faith Development Interview
How to Code a Faith Development Interview
Coding Criteria
Computer-Assisted Data Analysis in Faith Development Research


democracy, nonprofit

Democracy and Nonprofit Growth: A Cross-National Panel Study
Seok Eun Kim, You Hyun Kim (2018)
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly

Streib, H. (1991). Autobiographical reflection and faith development: Prospects for religious education. British Journal of Religious Education, 14(1), 43–53.

Streib, H. (2001). Faith development theory revisited: The religious styles perspective. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 11(3), 143–158.

Streib, H. (2003a). Faith development research at twenty years. In R. R. Osmer & F. Schweitzer (Eds), Developing a public faith: New directions in practical theology (pp. 15–42). St. Louis, Missouri: Chalice Press.

Streib, H. (2003b). Variety and complexity of religious development: Perspectives for the 21st century. In P. H. M. P. Roelofsma, M. T. Jozef & J. W. Van Saane (Eds), One hundred years of psychology of religion (pp. 123–138). Amsterdam: Vrije University Press.

Streib, H. (2003c). Religion as a question of style: Revising the structural differentiation of religion from the perspective of the analysis of the contemporary pluralistic-religious situation. Journal of Practical Theology, 7, 1–22.

Streib, H. (2004). Extending our vision of developmental growth and engaging in empirical scrutiny: Proposals for the future of faith development theory. Religious Education, 99(4), 427–434.

Dykstra, C. (1986). What is faith? An experiment in the hypothetical mode. In Dykstra, C. & Parks, S. (Eds). Faith development and Fowler (pp. 45–64). Birmingham, Alabama: Religious Education Press.

Dykstra, C. & Parks, S. (Eds) (1986). Faith development and Fowler. Birmingham, Alabama: Religious Education Press.

Dykstra, C. (1986a). What is faith? An experiment in the hypothetical mode. In C. Dykstra & S. D.
Parks (Eds.), Faith development and Fowler (pp. 45–64). Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press.

Dykstra, C. (1986b). Faith development and religious education. In C. Dykstra & S. D. Parks (Eds.),
Faith development and Fowler (pp. 251–271). Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press.

Dykstra, C., & Parks, S. D. (Eds.). (1986). Faith development and Fowler. Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press
Astley, J. (Ed.) (1991). How faith grows: Faith development and Christian education. London: National Society/Church House Publishing.

Astley, J. (2000a). Insights from faith development theory and research. In Astley (Ed.), Learning in the way: Research and reflection on adult Christian education (pp. 124–142). Leominster, UK: Gracewing.

Astley, J. (2000b). On gaining and losing faith with style: A study of post-modernity and/or confusion among college students. In L. J. Francis and Y. J. Katz (Eds). Joining and leaving religion: Research perspectives (pp. 249–268). Leominster, UK: Gracewing.

Astley, J. (2003). Spiritual learning: Good for nothing? In D. Carr & J. Haldane (Eds), Spirituality, philosophy and education (pp. 141–153). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Astley, J. & Francis, L. J. (Eds) (1992). Christian perspectives on faith development. Leominster, UK: Gracewing; Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans.

Astley, J. & Kay, W. K. (1998). Piaget and Fowler. In W. K. Kay & L. J. Francis (Eds), Religion in education, Volume 2 (pp. 137–168). Leominster, UK: Gracewing.

Astley, J. & Wills, N. (1999). Adolescent “faith” and its development. Youth and Policy: The Journal of Critical Analysis, 65, 60–71.

Avery, W. O. (1992). A Lutheran examines James W. Fowler. In J. Astley & L. J. Francis (Eds), Christian perspectives on faith development: A reader (pp. 122–134). Leominster, UK: Gracewing. First published 1990.

Monday, April 16, 2018


Wilber developed a similar map of transcendent consciousness, which was also based on
Vedantic concepts. He called the transcendental stages vision-logic, subtle, and causal levels of consciousness.

Wilber, IC (1996). Eye to eye: The quest for a new paradigm (3d ed.). Boston: Shambala

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Vedic psychology

Alexander et al. (1990) focused on various levels of consciousness, particularly Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Vedic psychology. Maharishi's teachings identify four stages of consciousness beyond Piaget's highest stage of intellectual development.
     The first is advanced ego development, which resides still within the realm of cognitive, representational consciousness and is similar to Paseual-Leone's concept of transcendent ego.
     The remaining three levels exist with a region of transcendent, transpersonal consciousness: (1) cosmic consciousness, (2) refined cosmic consciousness, and (3) unity consciousness.
     Alexander, C. N., Davies, J. L., Dixon, C. A., Dillbeck, M. C., Druker, S. M., Oetzel, R. M., Muehlman, J. M., & Orme-Johnson, D. W. (1990). Growth of higher stages of conscioushess:
Maharishi's Vedic psychology of human development. In C. N. Alexander & E. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Koenig theory of faith development

Koenig (1994) proposed a theory of faith development based on the presumption that development
does not occur in stages but instead is continuous and aimed at achieving the developmental goal of
"mature faith." To attain mature faith, commitment must be freely entered into. In mature faith, spirituality is central to all of life, which involves the ability to commit to this goal, deemphasize other potential central values, and develop the self-discipline necessary to keep spirituality in the center of consciousness and action. Mature faith involves believing without doubt that absolute truth underlies one's religious beliefs and spiritual life.

Koenig's theory gives little consideration to transcendent or mystical experience. Koenig asserted that life experience is conducive to the development of mature faith, that faith is more important to older adults than to younger adults, and that elders probably have had to overcome more tests of their faith. However, he did not identify age-related processes or influences that might account for the relationships between aging and the development of mature faith.

Koenig, H. G, (1994). Aging and God. New York: Haworth Pastoral Press.
Alexander, C. N., & Langer, E. J. (Eds.). (1990). Higher stages of human development: Perspectives on adult growth. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

This book is intended for the growing number of colleagues in the fields of psychology, gerontology, psychiatry, and social work, who are interested in adopting a life-span developmental approach to their discipline that takes into account the crucial period of the human life-cycle from late adolescence to late adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

Part I. Nonhierarchial theories of adult growth: Levinson: A theory of life structure development in adulthood-- Dittman-Kohli, Baltes: Toward a neofunctionalist conception of adult intellectual development: wisdom as a prototypical case of intellectual growth-- Gardner, Phelps, Wolf: The roots of adult creativity in children's symbolic products-- McGuinness, Pribram, Pirnazar: Upstaging the stage model-- Langer, Chanowitz, Palmerino, Jacobs, Rhodes, Thayer: Nonsequential developmentand aging--

Part II: Hierarchical theories of advanced cognitive development: Richards, Commons: Postformal cognitive-developmental theory and research: review of current status-- Fischer, Kenny, Pipp: How cognitive processes and environmental conditions organize discountinuities in the development ofabstractions--

Part III: Theories of advanced moral development: Kohlberg, Ryncarzs: Beyond justice reasoning: moral development and the consideration of a seventh stage-- Gilligan, Murphy, Tappen: Moral development beyond adolescence--

Part IV: Theories of higher stages of consciousness and self development: Souvaine, Lahey, Kegan: Life after formal operations: implications for a psychology of the self-- Pascual-Leone: Reflections of life-span intelligence, consciousness and ego development--Alexander, Davies, Dixon, Dillbeck, Druker, Oetzel, Meuhlman, Orme-Johnson: Growth of higher stages of consciousness: the Verdic psychology of human development.

Piaget theory of cognitive development

  • Piaget's (1954) theory of cognitive development in children has been especially influential and often serves as the basis for an assumption that little development occurs after adolescence (Alexander et al., 1990).
  • Piagetian developmental psychology
  • Piaget's (1970) constructivist epistemology which suggests a framework for determining the genesis and transformation of cognitive structures
  • Piagetian structuralism 
  • structuralism emphasizes that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts; a structure is an organized system, i.e., the parts of the whole are structurally integrated and thus that the aspects constitute an organized pattern of meaning-making; structures are dynamic
  • From a structuralist view the term "development" implies change that eventuates in increasingly complex structures.
  • Piaget restricted the study of cognition to childhood and adolescence. The assumption that cognitive development (not learning) ceases at the acquisition of formal operational logic; mathematico-logical constructs of formal operational thought
  • Developmental stages, Piaget's stages in particular, have been also criticized for not explaining why development from one stage to the next occurs, and for overlooking or even ignoring individual differences in cognitive development. 
  • Piaget's theory is also weakly developmental because his formal stage is the pinnacle of cognitive development, yet attained at adolescence----Because of this, some authors have proposed post-formal stages,which go beyond formal operations (e.g., Commons, Richards, & Armon, 1984). These higher stages are believed to be more flexible, complex, dialectical, and willing to deal with social, moral and intellectual complexities of one's everyday life than Piaget's formal stage (see Arlin, 1975).
  • Piaget viewed his formal stage as the pinnacle of cognitive development, but only in structural terms
  • Piaget's theory is both functional and structural. Functional, for it appeals to functional invariants, such as assimilation, accommodation, and self-regulation, which are involved in any process of knowledge at every age. Structural, because the same way of psychological functioning in all individuals at every age gives rise to different structures and new forms of knowing as time goes by.
  • for Piaget, developmental change is due to the “three traditional factors” of  development -biological maturation, physical experience, and social interaction, including language - and to complex processes such as equilibration and self-regulation (Piaget, 1985), reflecting abstraction (Piaget, 2001), conscious realizing (Piaget, 1976), dialectics (Piaget, 1980a), contradiction (Piaget, 1980b), opening to new possibilities (Piaget, 1987), finding reasons (Piaget, 2006), and so forth.
  • Despite Piaget's emphasis on the role of social factors, including language, in the individual's development, he stressed that they are not sufficient for explaining developmental change

ISSUESM, onogr. 47/48]. By Stanley I. Greenspan. New York: International Universities Press, 1979; 408 pp.
seeks to integrate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development with ego-psychoanalytic theory
ego-psychoanalytic model of development (Nunberg, Hartmann, and Rapaport are primary sources)
Bianchi, E. C. (1992). Aging as a spiritual journey. New York: Crossroad.

Bianchi, E. C. (1994). Elder wisdom Crajfting your own elderhood. New York: Crossroad.

Thomas, L. E., & Eisenhandler, S. A. (Eds.) (1994). Aging and the religious dimension. Westport, C'P. Auburn House.

Atchley, R. C. (1996). Mystical experience and aging: Diverse pathways and experience. Aging and Spirituality, 8, 1-2.

Alexander, C. N., Davies, J. L., Dixon, C. A., Dillbeck, M. C.,Druker, S. M., Oetzel, R. M., Muehlman, J. M., & Orme-Johnson, D. W. (1990). Growth of higher stages of conscioushess:
Maharishi's Vedic psychology of human development. In C. N. Alexander & E. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wilber, IC (1996). Eye to eye: The quest for a new paradigm (3d ed.). Boston: Shambala.

Tobin, S. S. (1991). Personhood in advanced old age. New York: Springer.

Whitbourne, S. K. (1986). The me I know: A study of adult identity. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Dwyer, J. W., & Coward, R. T. (Eds.) (1992). Gender, families, and long-term care. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage.

Erikson, E. H., Erikson, J. S., & Kivnick, H. Q. (1986). l, Vital involvement in old age. New York: Norton.

Kuhn, M. (1991). No stone unturned. New York: Ballantine.

Thibault, J. M. (1996). Aging as a natural monastery. Aging and Spirituality, 8, 3 and 8.

Pascual-Leone (1990), Alexander et al. (1990), and Wilber (1996) developed theories of the development of expanded awareness that described spiritual development in terms of increasingly
transcendent levels of consciousness.

Pascual-Leone's theory identified a type of transcendent cognition in which the highest self still remains part of the individual ego. He did not deal with transpersonal dimensions of transcendence.
    Pascual-Leone, J. (1990). Reflections on life-span intelligence, consciousness, and ego development. In C. N. Alexander & E. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Alexander et al. (1990) focused on various levels of consciousness, particularly Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Vedic psychology. Maharishi's teachings identify four stages of consciousness beyond Piaget's highest stage of intellectual development.
     The first is advanced ego development, which resides still within the realm of cognitive, representational consciousness and is similar to Paseual-Leone's concept of transcendent ego.
     The remaining three levels exist with a region of transcendent, transpersonal consciousness: (1) cosmic consciousness, (2) refined cosmic consciousness, and (3) unity consciousness.
     Alexander, C. N., Davies, J. L., Dixon, C. A., Dillbeck, M. C., Druker, S. M., Oetzel, R. M., Muehlman, J. M., & Orme-Johnson, D. W. (1990). Growth of higher stages of conscioushess:
Maharishi's Vedic psychology of human development. In C. N. Alexander & E. Langer (Eds.), Higher stages of human development. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wilber developed a similar map of transcendent consciousness, which was also based on
Vedantic concepts. He called the transcendental stages vision-logic, subtle, and causal levels of consciousness.


Saturday, April 14, 2018

David Hockney thinks you should take a longer look at life


O’Donovan, D. & Flower, R. N. (2013). The strategic plan is dead. Love live strategy. Stanford Social Innovation Review.
organization’s strategic direction: what vision you want to pursue, how you will make a difference, how you will succeed, and what capabilities it will take to get there.
Dwight D. Eisenhower’s sage advice that “Plans are useless, but planning is everything,”

Five Questions to Build a Strategy
environmental scans, SWOT analyses, customer analyses, competitor analyses, financial modeling, and so on.
What are our broad aspirations for our organization & the concrete goals against which we can measure our progress?
Across the potential field available to us, where will we choose to play and not play?
In our chosen place to play, how will we choose to win against the competitors there?
What capabilities are necessary to build and maintain to win in our chosen manner?
What management systems are necessary to operate to build and maintain the key capabilities?

Friday, April 13, 2018

Data archives, East Asian Social Survey

China -- Chinese general social survey
Japan --- Japanese general social survey
South Korea --- Korean general social survey
Taiwan --- Taiwan social change survey

International social survey programme
The ISSP is a cross-national collaboration programme conducting annual surveys on diverse topics relevant to social sciences.
Established in 1984 by its founding members Australia, Germany, Great Britain and the US, the ISSP has since included members covering various cultures around the globe. Its institutional members, each of them representing one nation, consist of academic organizations, universities, or survey agencies.
Since its foundation, over one million respondents have participated in the surveys of the ISSP. All collected data and documentation is available free of charge.

EASS (East Asian Social Survey) is a biennial social survey project that purports to produce and disseminate academic survey data sets in East Asia. As a cross-national network of GSS-type surveys in East Asia, EASS is dedicated to the promotion of comparative studies on diverse aspects of social lives in East Asia. Launched in 2003, EASS is one of the few international social survey data collection efforts, and is truly unique in its East Asian focus.

Thursday, April 12, 2018

Europe data, How to find data in Europe, Data Archive

Consortium of European Social Science Data Archives

Finding and accessing data from national social science data services
National data services provide access to extensive collections of data relevant to social and economic research. This guide 1) answers some key questions about finding and accessing data from national data services and 2) summaries national social science data services in Europe.

Key questions
What are national data services and archives?
Social science data services, known as data service providers within CESSDA, typically combine the archiving of research data with activities to make data available for research, teaching and learning. Common tasks include checking the quality of data and metadata, maintaining catalogues, and managing data access through appropriate licensing. Many data services also provide training for both those creating and using data and some operate within institutions that collect data or undertake research.

What kind of data is available?
Data services for the social sciences provide access to a diverse range of data. They often disseminate both quantitative and qualitative research data, through predominantly quantitative data from social surveys. Data collections can come from major academic projects including longitudinal and cross-national programs, government or policy focused organisations, and small research teams and individual researchers.

Why is data archived?
Research data are continually being archived and factors driving growth in the arching of data include drives to extend the benefits of public investments alongside growing appreciation for reproducible research. Indeed, publicly funded researchers are now required to archive data in some countries and national data services support researchers to effectively manage and document data.

How do I find data?
Most services have an online catalogue for searching or browsing using terms such as ageing (or aging, it can be useful to consider alternative spellings of key search terms). Websites and catalogues are often in multiple languages, typically national languages and English; though, data and documentation may only be available in one language. The European Language Social Science Thesaurus (ELSST) ( can help identify search terms.
Why is there not just one catalogue for all data?
CESSDA are building a Products and Services Catalogue for CESSDA members, as part of a wide-ranging plan to establish a common infrastructure. It is due to go into service in 2018. When fully operational, you will be able to search data collections provided by all CESSDA Service Providers.

What is NESSTAR?
NESSTAR enables online data browsing and analysis. You can also download tables, graphs, data files and study descriptions. Some data services use NESSTAR as their main tool for searching and accessing data while others have a main catalogue and provide NESSTAR as an additional tool. NESSTAR help pages, accessed at by clicking at the top of the screen, include helpful guidance.

How do I access data?
Access to data varies across national data services and across datasets. Most commonly, users need to register before they can access data. Registration is generally straightforward (often university researchers register using their institutional user name and password (shibboleth)). After registering,users can often download data directly from the catalogue. Registration is not required for some open datasets, which can be downloaded by anyone from the catalogue. In some cases, users need to complete a request form to access data.

Can I access data from any data service?
Most data services allow users from other countries to access data in the same way as users in the country. Indeed, a guiding principle in CESSDA is that all data holdings will be available to anyone regardless of status, nation or type of use (except redistribution) unless there are known requirements which prevent it. In some cases, the registration process for users outside the country may vary from home users, as those outside may need to apply for a user name and password. Additionally, access by users outside the country can be prohibited for some specific datasets, typically data which is confidential or is subject to national legislative requirements.

Are there any restrictions on what data I can access and how I use it?
Use of data is usually managed by a licence/agreement between the data service and user; users need to understand and accept the terms and conditions to access data. Different access levels to data are common. For example, at one level there may be Open data that can be downloaded by any type of user and without registering (but users agree to acknowledge the source of the information). Other levels of access may impose restrictions such as for non-commercial use or for research use only. The use of data may also need to be registered (a requirement that can help data creators understand the impact of their work). Other common conditions include not trying to identify individuals, households or organisations in the data and not distributing data. In some instances, access may require permission from the data owners. Catalogues may also include archived data that is not available for re-use, for example, due to concerns about privacy and consent issues. Access conditions for each data collection should be displayed clearly in the catalogue.

Will access to data incur any cost?
Access to data, documentation and metadata is generally free. Charges can apply for commercial use and for supplementary services such as burning data to a CD or distributing data by post.

How will I understand the data?
A core aim is that data collections have documentation that allows their use without recourse to the creator. Data services support those depositing data and carryout control checks during the archiving process. Documentation might include user guides, survey questionnaires, interview schedules and fieldwork notes. The documentation can generally be examined online before accessing data. Typically documentation comes as fully searchable PDF documents, but format and quality varies, especially for older studies. Some services (where resources allow) offer support to help users understand data through helpdesks and training.

What is data citation?
When using existing data, it is good practice to cite the data to credit the data creators and allow other researchers to find the data. Many services provide recommended citations for each data collection. In generally, a citation should include enough information so that the exact version of the data being cited can be located. Many services give persistent identifies for their data such as a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which link to the data used (even if the location of the data changes).

What if the local data service doesn’t have the data you’re looking for?
If you cannot find data you know data exists (e.g. through an academic publication), ask the relevant data service. Such user enquiries can help CESSDA service providers develop their collections; if they don’t have it, they may try and find out how to acquire it for onward data sharing.

National data service: CESSDA Members

Czech Republic: Czech Social Science Data Archive (ČSDA)
Website: Czech and English, Catalogue: Czech and English
Users from other countries can access all data under the same conditions as Czech users (9.1% registered users outside of Czech Republic in 2015). Access to data is limited by non-commercial use of data. Users can download data in the catalogue ( directly. Online registration is required (no additional supporting information required). In a few cases, special conditions defined by depositors are applied to datasets.

Denmark: Danish Data Archive (DDA)
Website: Danish and English, Catalogue: Danish and English
Access to data is limited by non-commercial use of data. Users can search catalogue and order data online. Access to some studies requires permission from the data owners. Users from other countries can access data.

Finland: Finnish Social Science Data Archive (FSD)
Website: Finnish, Swedish and English Catalogue: Finnish, Swedish and English (The variables of many quantitative datasets are available in English and more can be translated on request)
Users from other countries can access data. All users can access the data catalogue and download open access data from the Data Service Portal Aila. To access other data, registration is required. Students and staff from a Finnish university, polytechnic or research institute, can register using their institutional username and password. Users outside Finland (and other users without institutional username and password) need to apply for a username by completing a registration form. Usernames and passwords are primarily issued to students and researchers from foreign universities (sent by email within a week, after FSD User Services checks).

France: PROGEDO (CESSDA-France/ Réseau Quetelet)
Website: French and English, Catalogue: French (query in French)
Access to French data through CESSDA-France/Réseau Quetelet. Data are available free of charge for use in research and teaching (commercial use is prohibited) to researchers (including PhD and master students) both in France and other countries. Registration is required to access most data files (Electoral results are freely available online). To request data, users need the name of the distributor (ADISP, CDSP, INED) and reference number of the data (available from the Reseau Quetelet catalogue). Access to confidential data is available through CASD (

Germany: GESIS
Website: German and English, Catalogue: German and English
Users from other countries can access data. Most data provided by GESIS is limited to academic use. Most GESIS services are available with a simple registration procedure; for some services, users need to apply for access to data. Access to confidential data is available in-house through the Secure Data Centre, though GESIS is currently working on a remote-access solution. Users can apply for a visiting researcher grant at the EUROLAB:

Greece: SODANET - Greek research infrastructure for the social sciences
Website: Greek and English, Catalogue: Greek and English
Users need to register to search the catalogue and access data. Users from other countries can register to access data by completing a web form to provide personal details. Data is provided directly to users.

Lithuania: LiDA
Website: Lithuanian and English, Catalogue: Lithuanian and English
All users can access data with no restrictions including users outside Lithuania. Data is provided directly to users after online registration.
Netherlands: DANS – Data Archiving and Networked Services
Website: Dutch and English, Catalogue: Dutch and English
All users can access the data catalogue and open access data without registration. Registration is required for some data. To register, a user completes a web form with personal information and must also accept and understand the General DANS Conditions of Use. Registration is usually accepted immediately and users can browse and download data straight away. Access to some studies requires permission from the data owners. Foreign researchers can access data.

Norway: NSD Norwegian Centre for Research Data
Website: Norwegian and English, Catalogue: Norwegian and English
NSD's collection of research data consists of a series of studies conducted in Norway by various researchers and research institutes. Some datasets are freely available online, while others are available to order. It is the researcher or the responsible institution that determines the availability of the data. For data that require an application, data may be ordered via NSDs order form or The order is assessed based on the access criteria as determined by the researcher or research institution. Most data sets are available to students and researchers affiliated to Norwegian colleges and universities and some datasets are also available to other users. For further information, see this webpage.

Slovenia: ADP - Slovenian Social Science Data Archive
Website: Slovenian and English, Catalogue: Slovenian and English
Users from other countries can access data. Most of the data (95%) is accessible via Nesstar system. Users need to complete an online registration form (change language if it does not change automatically). There is some restricted access data (mostly administrative data from stati. offices) and sensitive that can only be accessed in safe-room environment. For access to restricted and sensitive data, we ask for official confirmation of status by affiliated University /institution and check user details with CESSDA SP in the user’s country.

Sweden: SND – Swedish National Data Service
Website: Swedish and English, Catalogue: Swedish and English
There are no limits on who can apply to access data; our main target groups are researchers and students at Swedish and foreign universities. Studies in SND’s catalogue have different accessibility
levels (determined by data owners). Access to some datasets requires permission from the principal investigator. Data is provided directly to users. Some studies are available for direct download. Others must be ordered. Data can be sent by e-mail or made accessible on an FTP server. Some studies can be downloaded from SND Online Analysis, which requires users to register and confirm that they understand the conditions of use. They then receive a username and password. To order data (that cannot be downloaded from the website) users fill in an online form (the order form contains a link to conditions governing receipt and use of data files). For studies that require permission of the principal investigator, users must fill in and sign an additional form for SND to forward to the principal investigator. There are different forms for students and researchers or other users. The form for students must also be signed by a supervisor or course coordinator. SND’s catalogue also lists studies where data are not available through SND. Contact information or links to the research group are provided. Some of these studies have data available to download from research group websites. For other data, conditions and restrictions may apply.

Switzerland: FORS
Language: French, English and German
Users from other countries can access data; there are no distinctions between Swiss researchers and researchers based in other countries. Download is usually possible immediately. In some cases however approval of the data producer is needed. Registration is required using e-mail address of institution. Access is usually restricted to researchers within universities and institutes as long as they are connected to scientific research and not commercial. Users not affiliated to a University are considered case by case.

UK: UK Data Service
Website: English, Catalogue: English
User from other countries can access data. All users can access the data catalogue and download open access data from the Discover catalogue. To access other data, registration is required. UK university or college users, register using their institutional username and password. Other users apply for a UK Data Archive username and password. Once registration is complete you will be able to download/order data from us. Non-UK users cannot access controlled data via the Secure Lab.

National data service: Non-members

Slovakia: SASD Slovak archive of social science data
Website: Slovakian and English, Catalogue: Slovakian and English
User from other countries can access data. Some data is available online for academic and information purposes (access categories O, A, B); to access, users complete the online data access form, which defines the conditions of use. For other data (under access category C), users need to complete a form and post it with signature and official seal of the institution to SASD.

Estonia: ESTA-Estonian Social Science Data Archive
Website: Estonian Catalogue: Estonian
Access information unavailable.

Hungary: TARKI
Website: Hungarian and English, Catalogue: Hungarian and English
Users from all countries can access the data collections in the Data Archive for free if they verify the scientific purpose by the user declaration form. Dataset usage is free when it has scientific purpose, but the owner of the dataset can decide about the data access category. The three common data access categories are A – Free access without any limitation; B – Free access for Hungarian scientific research institutions and public bodies and access to others with by the owner's permission only and D – Delayed dissemination (access with the depositor's permission only (for max. 5 years). In the cases of the B and D categories, we ask the depositor to allow the data request. The data is provided directly to the users, vie email or a unique created download link. Users need to fill and sign a user declaration form:

Ireland: ISSDA – Irish Social Science Data Archive
Website: English, Catalogue: English
Any student or researcher from any organisation, country or field of study can apply to ISSDA to access our datasets. Access to some datasets may be restricted in some cases. Data can be requested by returning a completing request form for research purposes to ISSDA via email ( Datasets are sent out via a secure online download service, called FileSender. The datasets are password protected and encrypted.

Italy: UniData
Website: Italian and English, Catalogue: Italian and English
Users from other countries can access the data, if license permits. Access to some data is available only to UniData members (primarily data from the National Institute of Statistics (Istat)). Where access is allowed, data can be downloaded directly from the website, after simple registration.

Portugal: Portuguese Social Information Archive (APIS)
Website: Portuguese and English, Catalogue: Portuguese and English (not all study descriptions)
Users from all countries can search and access data. Most holdings are open access and available in NESSTAR or to download but access to some data requires user registration, requires e-mail).

Romania: RODA
Website: Romanian and English, Catalogue: Romanian and English (not all study descriptions)
Users from all countries can access data directly. Some datasets are restricted to academic users only and require registration. When registering, a user may need to provide additional information to confirm their identity. Approval of data owners is required in some instances

Spain: CIS Data Bank
Website: Spanish, Catalogue: Spanish
Most data is accessible to all users. Data from 1997-2017 can be downloaded free via the CIS website ( To download data, users need to give their email and accept the conditions of use. To access older data (1963-1996), users need to apply to CIS Data bank by completing a form). Charges apply. A special process applies for access to confidential data, requests can be rejected

Links to studies

A series of public opinion surveys conducted regularly since 1973 within all 28 EU Member States. It aims to assess EU citizens’ awareness of, and support for, the European Union’s activities. Eurobarometer website:

European Social Survey (ESS) A cross-national survey conducted in more than 30 countries across Europe, every two years, since 2001. It measures a wide range of attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of its respondents. ESS website:

European Values Survey (EVS) A cross-national, longitudinal survey measuring basic human values of citizens across Europe. Beginning in 1981, it is repeated every nine years with increasing numbers of countries and respondents. By wave 4 (2008) 47 countries/regions took part with a total of around 70,000 respondents. It measures attitudes, values and opinions related to life, family, work, religion, politics and society. EVS website:

Eurostat is the statistical office of the European Union. One of its key tasks is to provide statistics at European level that enable comparisons between countries and regions. Eurostat also provides access to microdata such as the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and EU-LFS.
Eurostat website:

Generations and Gender Programme (GGP) A longitudinal survey of 18-79 year olds across several countries, with an average of 9,000 respondents per country. Beginning in 2004, it aims to improve our understanding of the various factors – including public policy and programme interventions - that affect the relationships between parents and children (generations) and between partners (gender). GGP website:

German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) An annual, longitudinal study of private households across Germany, beginning in 1984. Each year nearly 11,000 households and 30,000 persons are included. Data provides information about household composition, occupational biographies, employment, earnings, health and satisfaction indicators. SOEP website:

International Social Survey Programme (ISSP)
An annual programme of cross-national collaboration on surveys with rotating thematic modules on topics including: the Role of Government; Family and Changing; Gender Roles; Environment and Health and Health Care.
ISSP website:

Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)
A multidisciplinary and cross-national panel database of micro data on health, socio-economic status, and social and family networks. Survey covers approximately 123,000 individuals aged 50 or older.
First conducted in 2004 with 11 European Countries, it now covers 27 European countries and
Israel. SHARE website:

Swiss Household Panel (SHP)
Annual panel study which follows a random sample of private households in Switzerland.
Beginning in 1999 with a sample of over around 5,000 households, additional samples have
been added in 2004 (2,538 households) and 2013 (4,093 households). Interviews, done by telephone, cover a wide range of topics.
SHP website:

Understanding Society Annual longitudinal study of UK households. Beginning in 2009, it replaced the British Household Panel Study (BHPS) which began in 1991. It aims to understand 21st century UK life and how it is changing covering a wide range of themes such as family, education, finance, employment, health and wellbeing.
Understanding Society website:

DDM: Week 3. Overview of the Nonprofit Sector (II)

  1. Hall, P. D. (2010). Historical perspectives on nonprofit organizations in the United States.
  2. Til, J. V., & Ross, S. W. (2001). Looking Backward: Twentieth-Century Themes in Charity, Voluntarism, and the Third Sector. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 30(1), 112-129 (E)
  3. Urban Institute (2015) The Nonprofit Sector in Brief 2015
Taiwan Nonprofit, Volunteering

DDM: Week 2. Overview of the Nonprofit Sector (I)

  1. Eisenberg, P. (2000). The Nonprofit Sector in a Changing World. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 29(2), 325-330 (E)
  2. Frumkin, P. (2002). The idea of a nonprofit and voluntary sector. In On Being Nonprofit: A Conceptual and Policy Primer. 
  3. Glavin, R. (2011). The role of nonprofits in American life In D. R. Heyman (Ed.), Nonprofit Management 101: A Complete and Practical Guide for Leaders and Professionals. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. (E)
  4. Salamon, Lester M. (2013) The Resilient Sector: The Future of Nonprofit America,

cross-sectoral collaboration, collaboration and partnerships, social problems, social change, social innovation
public, private, nonprofit comparison: similarities, differences, law, structure, behavior, attitude

NGO, third sector, International perspective: international NGOs, the role of NGOs and social service organizations in the developed and developing worlds; the relationship among NGOs, states, market, and civil society; civil society, community participation, a sense of citizenship; development (particularly sustainable development)

Nonprofit management
Institutional Location of Graduate Nonprofit Management Programs:
Arts and Sciences, Business, Business and public administration, Public affairs and administration, Social work, Graduate or professional school, Interdisciplinary,  Other college or school

Major courses and topics
1.External: philanthropy (history and theory), volunteerism, advocacy (public policy, community
   organizing), fund-raising (financial resources), marketing and public relations
2.Internal: ethics and values, leadership (executive leadership), performance measurement, legal issues (nonprofit law), strategic planning, accounting and financial management, human resource management, organizational theory and behavior, information management and technology, decision making and analytic methods, social enterprise (corporate social responsibility)
3.Social enterprise (MPA, MBA): socially responsible for-profit businesses, create social value in business, apply business skills to social enterprise endeavors
4.Social entrepreneurship vs. social enterprise: the former's spectrum of initiatives are much wider than the latter


Social venture capital (SVC), social investing, social enterprise

Mayer, J., & Scheck, B. (2018) Social Investing: What Matters From the Perspective of Social Enterprises? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly,

DDM: Week 1. Introduction

小廚櫃 (social entrepreneurship)


Stanford Social Innovation Review


class representative

facebook group

reading: electronic or hard copy

The Dugan Research Award on Philanthropic Impact

The Dugan Research Award on Philanthropic Impact

Charity Navigator and the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action [ARNOVA] are offering an annual award, starting in 2017, to encourage innovative, foundational research on nonprofit impact measurement. The Dugan Research Award on Philanthropic Impact provides a $10,000 award to support new research investigating the creation of a methodology to capture, measure, quantify, and/or evaluate nonprofit programmatic and/or organizational impact.

The ideal proposal would:

1. Review and critique current existing literature and methodologies of impact measurement/evaluation
2. Propose a scalable methodology for measuring organizational or programmatic impact across the entire population of nonprofits or specific to a single cause area

One grant is made each year, assuming a worthy proposal is submitted. The award will not be granted for proposals seeking to evaluate existing nonprofit ratings methodologies and/or their impact on the sector; rather, the creation and development of new systems and approaches to impact measurement.

The award recipient will produce a working paper that can be made available on the Charity Navigator website or in other Charity Navigator publications when finished, and to present that paper at the ARNOVA Conference the year it is completed. The recipient will be expected to produce the final paper within 12 months of the announcement of the award.

It is requested (not required) that proposal submissions and final papers be open access in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Generic License (CC by 4.0) or an equivalent license for publication. Opting-out will not preclude applicants from being selected for the 2018 award.

Proposals should not exceed 5 pages in length, single-spaced. The proposal should describe the concepts, issues or problem to be explored, and the theoretical framework for that exploration. The author may attach a summary of literature that their project will draw on and include a letter describing the author's background and experience and how that prepares them to undertake this research successfully. A brief budget may be submitted that shows how the awards funds will be used, but a budget is not necessary.
The proposal narrative should describe the character of and approach to the research to be pursued. If it involves data gathering and analysis, the proposal should describe data sources the project will use (or develop), and the methodologies to be employed in collection and analysis. It should explain the expected significance of this research and how it will advance a broader and deeper understanding of one or more of the important elements of philanthropy, nonprofits, voluntary action or civil society.
The proposer's Curriculum Vitae
The award recipient is required to attend the ARNOVA Awards Luncheon on Friday, November 16, 2018 at the Hilton Austin in Austin, Texas. They may also serve on a panel to present their award-winning research as part of a mini-plenary on the same day.

All proposals must be submitted electronically in a single PDF formatted file to assure their integrity. Word documents will not be considered.

Submission Open: February 15, 2018
Deadline: April 16, 2018
Awardee Notification: July 9, 2018
Award Announcement: September 12, 2018

Wednesday, April 11, 2018

contract failure theory

One of the most widely cited explanations for the existence of nonprofits is the “contract failure” theory, which is premised on the problem of asymmetrical information existing between the producer and consumers (Hansmann, 1980).

Hansmann (1987) explains this as:
Contract failure theory is a theory of consumer expectations, not actual performance. Individuals who are uncertain of their ability to monitor quality might patronize nonprofit firms in preference to for-profit firms in the belief they are more trustworthy. p. 33

Handy, F., Seto, S., Wakaruk, A., Mersey, B., Mejia, A., & Copeland, L. (2010). The Discerning Consumer: Is Nonprofit Status a Factor? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 39(5), 866-883.

Can some corporations become forces for good?

What is a B Corporation? Explained by Bryan Welch

Benefit Corporations Aim to Make Profit, Positive Impact

素食餐廳年輕老闆良心潔癖,懷抱理想堅持圓夢! 一步一腳印 20171008

The Canadian Social Enterprise Guide

social Impact Metrics, evaluation, social enterprise

Social entrepreneurship: Social impact metrics

The Canadian Social Enterprise Guide,  Chapter 6: Performance measurement

Measuring Innovation: Evaluation in the Field of Social Entrepreneurship
Mark R. Kramer

A guide to Social Return on Investment

follow ur passion

“But most importantly, follow your passions and seek to leave the world a better place than how you
received it. Before you know it, you’ll be working with leaders and organizations across sectors to see your vision realized.” (Lovegrove & Thomas, 2013, para. 13).

Pitch Your Social Enterprise

11 Tips When Pitching Your Social Enterprise

Foolproof pitching tips from an impact investor

The 7 Key Components of a Perfect Elevator Pitch

Taiwan philanthropic study institution


china philanthropy research institute


Business plans for social enterprises

Business plans for social enterprises (SE) and social businesses

Developing a Social Enterprise Business Plan

Business Plan Outline for Social Enterprises

How to develop a better social enterprise business plan

Social Lean Canvas model

Exploring the Social Enterprise Business Model: How to Write a Business Plan

Honig, B., & Karlsson, T. (2004). Institutional forces and the written business plan. Journal of Management, 30(1), 29-48

Start-up success: six lessons for aspiring social entrepreneurs

10 Policy Tools that Governments Are Implementing to Spur Social Enterprise

Governments around the world are recognizing the potential of Social Enterprises (SEs) in order to build more inclusive social and economic agendas. For instance, the Government of the United Kingdom is praising innovative solutions of social enterprises as a vehicle to close the gap on the provision of public services, such as education and health. Other countries like the United States and Italy are seeing in SEs the opportunity to improve the quality, affordability, and equity of service provision, and Chile, South Korea, Canada, and Poland envision SEs as a way to increase social cohesion and derivate economic benefits for their nations.

This does not seem to be a surprise, considering that SEs are demonstrating that they can generate sizeable national-level returns. The sector as a whole is becoming an important contributor to gross domestic product, like in South Korea where, according to the British Council, the contributions of the sector accounts for 3% of the GDP. 

It is also outperforming profit-driven small-sized enterprises on a number of indicators in the UK. The Social Enterprise UK Survey reports that 41% of SEs created jobs in the past 12 months compared to 22% of small-sized enterprises. Furthermore, in the United States, SEs are proving to have a high economic rate of return, especially over the long term. The report on Economic Self-Sufficiency and Life Stability shows that one year after starting a social enterprise job in the US, the return of investment of social enterprises include an economic multiplier of 2.23 and savings for US taxpayers of  $1.31 for every dollar invested in SE due to reductions in government transfer benefits.

Finally, SEs are also proving to reduce inequalities by providing stable employment to those typically excluded from the labor market. In Manitoba, Canada, the sector contributed more than $200 million each year in saved cost associated with unemployment.

In the face of these opportunities, how are policies evolving to support social enterprises?

Countries with a more mature policy framework recognize the role of SEs in the long term vision of the country. For example, the UK included SEs in the National Plan of Government 2010-2015.  Laws have been put in place in some countries, like the Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act in the US (enacted in 2009), or the Social Enterprise Promotion Act of South Korea (enacted in 2007). Moreover, specific institutions, like Social Enterprise UK or the Korea Social Enterprise Promotion Agency, have been created to support SEs.

In addition, they are implementing different policy tools that are nurturing the social enterprise ecosystem. Here is a list of 10 policy tools identified after mapping the policy frameworks of 14 countries, including UK, USA, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Thailand, India, South Korea, Kenya, and South Africa. The policy tools correspond to those countries where the social enterprise policy frameworks were at a growing or mature stage.

Policy tools used by governments to spur social entrepreneurship
  1. Legal forms. Different countries have enacted laws that recognize new legal form for SE.  For example, the Community Interest Company in the UK, Social Enterprise in South Korea, Social Cooperatives and Social EX Ledge in Italy or the Benefit Corporation in the US. By legally recognizing SE, this opens the doors to formulating policies that support them.
  2. Fiscal Incentives. The UK is implementing the Social Investment Tax Relief to benefit those who invest in social enterprises by giving a reduction of 30% of the investment in income tax bill for that year.
  3. Public Procurement Systems. Used by governments to demand and consume from social enterprises. The Social Value Act enacted in 2012 in the UK is a good example of how a government can open up opportunities for SEs to deliver public services. 
  4. Grants. Used to strengthen the ability or capacity of actors in innovation ecosystems to generate knowledge and produce innovation. The Social Innovation Fund and Investing in Innovation Fund of the Department of Education in the US, as well as the Big Lottery Fund in the UK are undertaking such initiatives.
  5. Public Venture Capital Funds. They look to achieve attractive, risk-adjusted returns through long-term capital appreciation of investments made in investee companies. For example, the Maharashtra State Social Venture Fund in India, which aims at generating superior returns by investing in start-ups, early and growth stage capital primarily in medium–sized enterprises that would add economic, social or environmental value to the State of Maharashtra.
  6. Guarantee Funds. These facilitate the access to finance when social enterprises stimulate sound credit transactions. For example, KODIT in South Korea or the II Guarantee Fund for Social Cooperatives in Italy extend credit guarantees for the liabilities of promising social enterprises which lack tangible collateral.
  7. Social Impact Bonds. These are financial mechanisms through which investors pay for a set of interventions to improve social outcomes that are of critical interest to the government. The model combines government initiation, private investment and implementation of a third actor that can be a non-profit organization or a social enterprise. Social Finance in the UK is an example.
  8. Awareness Campaigns. To help identify, engage and promote social innovators, entrepreneurs, and scientists that are contributing to solving social problems. Some examples are the Thai Social Enterprise Awards in Thailand, the Community Solutions Tour in the US, the Amplify Awards in Malaysia, and the Social Value Awards in the UK.
  9. Incubation and Acceleration. Some governments are engaging or financing directly the incubation and acceleration of Social Enterprises. For instance, the Social Incubator Fund in the UK, and the Seoul Creative Lab in South Korea.
  10. Training and Capacity Building. Through mentorship programs, social entrepreneurs are developing the commercial and social skills needed to develop their ventures. Some examples include the Young Social Entrepreneur Program in South Korea and Egypt, or the Malaysia Social Enterprise Track.
While many of these policies and reforms are too recent to fully assess their impact, some countries with a longer history of social enterprise policies, such as the UK, have conducted studies on individual policy instruments, and SE surveys that shed light on broader patterns of the evolution of the sector. The National Evaluation of the Social Enterprise Investment Fund in the UK is one of these cases. However, at the global level, there is a lack of comprehensive and comparable data sources. The challenge for governments implementing these sets of policy tools is to gather information, monitor, and evaluate their results and impact. The Social Enterprise team, within the World Bank Group's Trade & Competitiveness Global Practice, is working on a forthcoming paper with more detailed information.