Sunday, September 24, 2017


228事件為台灣民族主義的起源 (Taiwan nationalism), late 1940s to 1950s white terror
若林正丈. (2016). 戰後臺灣政治史:中華民國臺灣化的歷程: 國立臺灣大學出版中心.

1987解除戒嚴, 開放黨禁, 報禁




1987解除戒嚴, 開放黨禁, 報禁, 放寬集會及遊行之禁令

recover endnote library

Standard Recovery:
With the library closed, in EndNote go to "Tools > Recover Library". Click OK to the notice that comes up, then select the library file you would like to recover (you may need to browse to the folder on your computer in which the library is located). After selecting your library, you will be prompted to save the new library that will be created. By default, EndNote will add "-Saved" to the end of the original name. After this, the recovery process will begin.
Once completed, EndNote will inform you of the number of references that were recovered into the Saved library. You can now use this Saved version of the library in place of the original, damaged library.
Advanced Recovery Options:
Instructions for rebuilding the library with just the .Data folder. Creating a new .enl file.
There are some times where the normal library recovery won't work or won't be enough. Specifically if you are noticing that your EndNote library searches, Cite While You Write is not finding the right reference or sorting is not working properly. In these cases it may be necessary to recover the library with just the .Data folder portion while creating a new .enl file.
Additional information about the .Data folder can be found at the following article here
Sync Specific Note: If you are working with the Sync feature in EndNote X7 and later, this does not interact with the sync process. If the online library is still intact, you would open a new local blank library and sync that. Please contact Technical Support for further assistance. 
  1. First, create a new folder on your desktop (Right click in empty space on the desktop and choose New/Folder).
  2. Locate the library in your machine through Windows Explorer.
  3. Copy the .Data folder for your library into a new folder on your desktop by itself.
  4. In the folder you moved the .Data folder into, create a new text file (Right click in empty space of the desktop and choose New/Text Document).
  5. Rename the text file, with the extension, to the name of the original .enl file.
If you do not see the .txt at the end of the file name, you will need to change your Windows preferences to show the extensions.
  1. In the folder, go to the Tools menu on top. If you don't see the tools menu, tap the Alt key on your keyboard once.
  2. Go to Folder Options.
  3. Go to the View tab.
  4. Uncheck the box labeled, "Hide extensions for known file types".
  5. Press Ok.
  6. Rename the text file, with the extension, to the name of the original .enl file.
Run the recover library on the newly created .enl file.
If your library files are:
Move MyEndNoteLibrary.Data to a new folder
Create a new text file in the same folder you moved the MyEndNoteLibrary.Data folder to. This file will be called:
New Text Document.txt
Rename from
New Text Document.txt
Recover the MyEndNoteLibrary.enl using the normal steps at the top of this page.

Mac OS X: 
  1. You will need to first back up your library to another location then you can repair this as follows:
  2. Create a new folder on your desktop.
  3. Locate your library on your computer using Finder. This is usually in the Documents folder, but could have been created or moved anywhere.
  4. Copy the .Data folder for your library into a new folder by itself.
  5. In the folder you moved the .Data folder into, create a new text file.   Use the Applications / Text Edit program to create a new, blank text file then just save it into the folder you created on the desktop using File / Save As.
  6. Single click on the text file you created to select it.
  7. Press command and i on your keyboard at the same time.
  8. In the Name & Extension field, rename the text file and extension to the name of the original .enl file.
  9. Press OK.
  10. Run the recover library on the newly created .enl file.
If your library files are:
Move MyEndNoteLibrary.Data to a new folder
Create a new text file in the same folder you moved the MyEndNoteLibrary.Data folder to.
Rename the file to
Making sure to change the extension from .txt to .enl. This should make the file take on the EndNote icon as well.
Recover the MyEndNoteLibrary.enl.

Note: If you've saved your EndNote library as a package file (.enlp extension), you'll need to extract the package library's internal .enl file and Data folder before recovering:

1.  Quit EndNote.
2.  Use Finder to navigate to the folder where your .enlp library file exists.
3.  Hold down the "control" key on your keyboard while clicking the package library file.  Choose "Show Package Contents" from the resulting menu.
4.  Now that you're looking at the contents of your package library, drag and drop the .enl file and .Data folder from this Finder window and place the two library components elsewhere, such as your Desktop.
5.  Proceed with the library recovery process as listed above by selecting the .enl file that you dragged out of the package library.

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Saturday, September 23, 2017

law-making, lawmaking (adj)
a law-making body
the law-making process
a regional lawmaking body

law-making (n)
the responsibility of lawmaking

critical legal studies was committed to shaping society based on a vision of human personality devoid of the hidden interests and class domination that CLS scholars argued are at the root of liberal legal institutions in the West
Finnis, John, "Natural Law Theories", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2016 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

Sypnowich, Christine, "Law and Ideology", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

Green, Leslie, "Legal Positivism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

Friday, September 22, 2017

Economic Theory of Politics

economic theory of regulation---- economic ("capture") theories of regulation
the most basic proposition of economic, capture models of regulation is the (sometimes implicit) assertion that the altruistic, publicly interested goals of individuals are such insignificant factors in political processes that they are empirically uninteresting and dispensable. Stigler (1972) has noted the possibility of altruistic motives in political action

public interest theory of regulation

empirical importance of the altruistic, publicly interested goals of rational actors in determining legislative and regulatory outcomes

Kalt, J. P., & Zupan, M. A. (1984). Capture and Ideology in the Economic Theory of Politics. The American Economic Review, 74(3), 279-300.

congressional voting

US Congressional Votes Database

Each year the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives take thousands of vote, some to pass bills, resolutions, nominations, and treaties, and others on procedural matters such as on cloture and other motions. Not all votes are recorded, such as when there is no one opposed. This page shows the outcome of all recorded votes on the Senate and House floor.

Thursday, September 21, 2017


panel data books

Kessler, Ronald C. and David F. Greenberg. 1981. Linear Panel Analysis. Models of Quantitative Change. New York: Academic Press.

Frees, Edward W. 2004. Longitudinal and Panel Data: Analysis and Applications in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

投資理財, 企業管理



legislators, Taiwan


Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Legal positivism and American constitutionalism are irreconcilable.

Edwin Vieira, J. (1979). Rights and the United States Constitution: the Declension from Natural Law to Legal Positivism. Georgia Law Review, 13, 1447-1500.

Supreme Court Database

Outcome Coding for Supreme Court cases

The Supreme Court Database is the definitive source for researchers, students, journalists, and citizens interested in the U.S. Supreme Court. The Database contains over two hundred pieces of information about each case decided by the Court between the 1791 and 2016 terms. Examples include the identity of the court whose decision the Supreme Court reviewed, the parties to the suit, the legal provisions considered in the case, and the votes of the Justices.

Lee Epstein & Jack Knight, The Choices Justices Make



以下是哈佛校長德魯·吉爾平·福斯特(Drew Gilpin Faust)於開學禮致辭全文:

也是在歡迎本科新生的年度典禮上,哈佛藝術與科學學院已故的前任院長傑里米·諾爾斯(Jeremy Knowles)曾描述過他所認為的高等教育最重要目標:


在四年大學生涯中,我們希望你們能夠超越剛剛入學時的自己;我們希望你們探索自己認為是理所當然的東西,培養出在多元化環境中健康成長的能力—— 在未來幾年,你們將在哈佛發現這樣的環境。這些目標讓哈佛院舍系統
(House system)的生活學習環境充滿了活力,你們將在明年3月被隨機分配

empirical legal scholarship, ideology, law

ideological salience

judicial ideology
  • relationship between judges' or Justices' political orientations when appointed and the way that they vote once on the bench. 
  • Joshua B. Fischman & David S. Law, What Is Judicial Ideology, and How Should We Measure It?, 29 WASH. U. J.L. & POL'Y 133, 138-41 (2009) (making the same point and noting that, in many contexts, use of judicial discretion is mandated by the law).
  • Jeffrey A. Segal & Albert D. Cover, Ideological Values and the Votes of U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 83 AM. POL. Sci. REv. 557, 559-61 (1989).
  • Michael W. Giles et al., Picking Federal Judges: A Note on Policy and Partisan Selection Agendas, 54 POL. RES. Q. 623 (2001).
  • Carolyn Shapiro, Coding Complexity: Bringing Law to the Empirical Analysis of the Supreme Court, 60 HASTINGS L.J. 477 (2009).

works generally focus on particular questions or areas of the law, such as workplace law, tax law, or intellectual property
  • James J. Brudney & Corey Ditslear, The Warp and Woof of Statutory Interpretation: Comparing Supreme Court Approaches in Tax Law and Workplace Law, 58 DUKE L.J. 1231 (2009). In this fascinating article, following up on their previous work focusing on workplace law, the authors examine the ways in which the Justices' use of legislative history and canons of statutory construction compare in workplace law and tax law. 
  • Matthew Sag et al., Ideology and Exceptionalism in Intellectual Properly: An Empirical Study, 97 CAL. L. REV. 801 (2009)
  • Nancy Staudt et al., The Ideological Component of Judging in the Taxation Context, 84 WASH. U. L. REV. 1797 (2006)
  • Hahm, P. C. (1969). Ideology and Criminal Law in North Korea. The American Journal of Comparative Law, 17(1), 77-93.
Shapiro, C. (2010)

a cross-section of Supreme Court cases to identify ideology and the role it plays in the cases
  • Shapiro, C. (2010). The Context of Ideology: Law, Politics, and Empirical Legal Scholarship. Missouri Law Review, 75(1), 1-64. -- identify the ideological character of Supreme Court cases. ideology and Justices' decisionmaking in  Supreme Court cases, role of ideology in Supreme Court judging
The ideological dimensions of law have been explored in areas as diverse as:

private law (Kennedy 1976)
  • Kennedy, D. 1976. Form and substance in private law adjudication. Harvard Law Rev. 89:1685-1778
public law (Tushnet 1979) 
  • Tushnet, M. 1979. Truth, justice and the American way: an interpretation of public law scholarship in the seventies. Tex. Law Rev. 57:1307-59
law of contracts (Gabel 1977; Gabel & Feinman 1982) 
  • Gabel, P. 1977. Intention and structure in contractual conditions: outline of a method for critical legal theory. Minn. Law Rev. 61:601-43
  • Gabel, P., Feinman, J. M. 1982. Contract law as ideology. In The Politics of Law, ed. D. Kairys, pp. 172-84. NY: Pantheon. 321 pp.
torts (Abel 1981)
  • Abel, R. L. 1981. A critique of American tort law. Br. J. Law & Society 8:199-231
constitutional law (Tushnet 1981)
  • Tushnet, M. 1981. The dilemmas of liberal constitutionalism. Ohio State Law J. 42:411-26
labor law (Klare 1978, 1981, 1982; Stone 1981)
  • Klare, K. 1978. Judicial deradicalization of the Wagner Act and the origin of mod- em legal consciousness, 1937-1949. Minn. Law Rev. 62:265-339
  • Klare, K. 1981. Labor law as ideology: toward a new historiography of collective bargaining law. Indust. Relat. Law J. 4:450-82 
  • Klare, K. 1982. Critical theory and labor relations law. See Abel 1982, pp. 65-88
  • Stone, K. 1981. The post-war paradigm in American labor law. Yale Law J. 90:1I 1509-80
criminal law (Kelman 1982)
  • Kelman, M. 1982. The origins of crime and criminal violence. In The Politics of Law, ed. D. Kairys, pp. 214-29. NY: Pantheon. 321 pp.
law relating to race relations (Freeman 1978, 1982)
  • Freeman, A. 1978. Legitimizing racial dis- crimination through anti-discrimina- tion law: a critical review of supreme court doctrine. Minn. Law Rev. 62:1I 1049-1119 
  • Freeman, A. 1982. Antidiscrimination law: a critical review. See Abel 1982, pp. 96- 116
healthcare (Rosenblatt 1981)
  • Rosenblatt, R. 1981. Health care, markets, and democratic values. Vanderbilt Law Rev. 34(2):1067-1115
the family (Olsen 1983)
  • Olsen, F. 1983. The market and the family: a study of ideology and legal reform. Har- vard Law Rev. 96
gender roles (Rafter & Stanko 1982; Polan 1982; Taub & Schneider 1982)
  • Rafter, N. H., Stanko, E. A., eds. 1982. Judge, Lawyer, Victim, Thief: Women, Gender Roles and Criminal Justice. Boston: Northeastern Univ. Press. 383 pp
  • Polan, D. 1982. Toward a theory of law and patriarchy. See Abel 1982, pp. 294-303
  • Abel, R. L. 1982. Torts. In The Politics of Law, ed. D. Kairys, pp. 172-84. NY: Pantheon. 321 pp.
  • Taub, N., Schneider, E. M. 1982. Perspectives on women's subordination and the role of law. See Abel 1982, pp. 117-39
Spitzer, S. (1983)

political affiliation is a strong predictor of how members of the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives will vote on environmental issues.
political affiliations and Congressional votes on environmental issues
Anderson, W. L., & Mizak, D. A. (2006)

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

For mainland Chinese students, Taiwan's universities are 'like paradise.' But there's a catch


the concept of ideology, which supposedly first appeared in the 1790s, is nowadays defined in political and wider social theory in various ways which are some times mutuaily exclusive, in theory there exists a relatively high degree of consensus that the author of this concept was the French aristocrat, scholar, and représentative of the then current philosophy of materialism, Antoine Luis Claude Destutt de Tracy (1754-1836).1 In his systematic study of the Enlightenment between the years 1796 and 1798, De Tracy coined this concept, hoping that it would completely clearly de note and name the new science, i.e. "the science of ideas",2 the science within the framework of which ideas are formed by means of knowledge that is based on empiri cal analysis and not on supernatural or spiritual phenomena

philosophy of law, ideology, law

Law as ideology--- law cloaks power.
a law is the legal expression of a political ideology
people's political beliefs shape the practice and activity of law
law might seem to emanate from ideology
The ideal of law, in contrast, involves a set of institutions that regulate or restrain power with reference to norms of justice.

the presence of the ideological in law must, in some sense, compromise law's integrity.

Natural law theory ( natural law legal theory)
  • formalist
  • law is normative
  • Thomas Aquinas (Roman Catholic Church)
  • Lon Fuller, Ronald Dworkin (secular standards emanating from the procedural ideals of the rule of law or the constitutionalism of American liberalism)
  • Law is identified with moral principles.
  • Morality is intrinsic to the definition of law
  • What is law must partly depend on moral criteria
  • what the law is must be determined, in some sense, by what the law ought to be, that is, morality
  • the essence of law is moral
  • law has a moral source-- the source of law is morality 
  • Plato,Aristotle,Stoic natural law,Cicero, Christianity, English jurisprudence, American jurisprudence, Hobbes
  • natural law comprises inherent rights, conferred not by act of legislation, but by "God, nature or reason
  • according to which there are necessary moral constraints on the content of law
  • law is derived from morality.
  • natural law theory considers the connections between the universe, human nature, and morality, usually deriving the last from some combination of the first two
  • The majority position within the natural law tradition appears to be that moral truths are to be derived from truths about human nature. A minority position in the tradition, represented by, among others, Finnis, Germain Grisez, and Robert George, is that moral truths are to be discovered or derived in other ways
  • Natural law theory discussions of human positive law tend to focus on moral obligations: what laws should a (good) legislator pass, and when does a (good) citizen have a moral obligation to obey the law. 
  • there is objective moral truth, and that this truth should be used to evaluate our political and legal institutions as well as our individual choices,
Rommen, H. A..The Natural Law. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2012. Project MUSE,
Bix, B. (2000).

Legal positivism, Positive law theory
  • realists, legal realism
  • Thomas Hobbes, John Austin (the legitimacy of law did not depend on moral criteria; law must be obeyed, however much it falls short of moral ideals)
  • H.L.A. Hart, Joseph Raz (what is law is a factual question)Thomas Hobbes, Jeremy Bentham, John Austin, Hans Kelsen, and Herbert Hart
  • In the 1920s
  • Law is a set of formal rules
  • abandon Marx's specifically historical materialist explanation
  • but took up Marx's idea that social forces (e.g., political, economical, social) outside the law are central in determining what the law is
  • Law is inherently indeterminate
  • What is law is determined only by the institutional facts internal to the legal system; facts that may or may not meet moral standards
  • although law may meet moral criteria, what the law is and what it ought to be should be kept distinct
  • the essence of law is institutional
  • the source of law is in a system's institutions
  • what law is in any society is a matter of certain complicated psycho-social facts
  • law is whatever satisfies the criteria of the "rule of recognition" characteristic of a legal system, and the "rule of recognition" consists of the criteria that officials actually apply in deciding what the law is and which officials treat as obligatory (rightly or wrongly)
  • Legal positivists deny that laws are valid because of their moral merits.
  •  human-made laws (positive law) of a given state, political entity or society
  • Positive laws are human-made laws that oblige or specify an action. It also describes the establishment of specific rights for an individual or group
  • Positive law is also described as the law that applies at a certain time (present or past) and at a certain place, consisting of statutory law, and case law as far as it is binding. 
  • positive law may be characterized as "law actually and specifically enacted or adopted by proper authority for the government of an organized jural society
  •  law is synonymous with positive norms, that is, norms made by the legislator or considered as common law or case law.
  • positivism arose in opposition to classical natural law theory
  • Positivists do not judge laws by questions of justice or humanity, but merely by the ways in which the laws have been created. This includes the view that judges make new law in deciding cases not falling clearly under a legal rule. Practicing, deciding or tolerating certain practices of law can each be considered a way of creating law
  • Legal theorists who present or understand their theories as “positivist”, or as instances of “legal positivism”, take their theories to be opposed to, or at least clearly distinct from, natural law theory. 
  • positivist idea that law and politics can be entirely separated from one another
  • separation between law and morals
  • it is both tenable and valuable to offer a purely conceptual and/or purely descriptive theory of law, in which the analysis of law is kept strictly separate from its evaluation of its (moral) merits,
  • there is a possibility of and value to a descriptive or conceptual theory of law separated from any evaluation of its (moral) merits,
  • The existence of law is one thing; its merit or demerit is another.
  • Modem legal positivism developed in reaction to certain (less sophisticated) versions of natural law theory.
  • Positive law (at least generally just positive law) plays a crucial role in achieving social/common goods that require the deployment of state power (for example, sanctions for criminal behavior) or the coordination of citizen action.
Leiter, B. (2015)
Bix, B. (2000)
Hart, ( 1958)

Max Weber, law and ideology

  • Impersonal legal rationality
  • Max Weber (who, owing to a variety of reasons, is mostly conceptualized as sociologist rather than as a legal realist)
  • sociology of law

Marxist theory of law  (radical)
  • is enemy for both natural law and positive law (the latter two think law has essence, be it moral or institutional)
  • law as ideology--the essence of law as fundamentally misconceived
  • Apply the Marxist theory of ideology to the analysis of law
  • ideological dimension of law
  • conceptualization of law itself as an ideological phenomenon
  • law as a manifestation of the will of the dominant class
  • how the interests of the powerful shape law
  • law is inevitably shaped by ideas emanating from power relations outside of the law, then it would seem that law has no essence, be it moral or institutional
  • If law is reduced to ideology, or seen as its mere effect, then legality looks contingent and unprincipled, having no necessary content or definition, no intrinsic character
  • If law both mirrors and distorts the realities of power, it is power, not principles of legality, which tell us what law is
  • Thus for most mainstream legal theorists, the ideological is no necessary feature of the law, and law should certainly not be defined according to the radical conception where intrinsic to law is a mystification of reality, or an obfuscation of social relations in order to exact compliance
  • law emerges from the practices of society, though the practices are extra-legal (political, economic and social), rather than the practices of institutional facts internal to a legal system (positivism)
  • Social forces (outside the law) are ultimately determining of the content and form of a legal system
  • general decline of the influence of Marxism, accounts for why some recent literature has avoided the term ‘ideology’ and opted instead for terms like ‘discourse’ or ‘narrative'---Such terms also suggest that law should be understood in a political context
  • law are ideological
  • the relationship between ideology and law has been the long-standing Marxist habit of defining the former as "false consciousness" and the latter as "repression"
  • ideology is, by definition, no more than a veil pulled over the eyes of the working class by its masters
  • rejected the law's claim to objectivity
  • legal decision-making involves not formal, deductive logic but subjective choice; any legal choice made is never logically compelled
  • In the Marxian tradition the objection has been not so much that the law is imbued with values, but that the distribution of legal outcomes is skewed to particular values, particular interests; the law reflects dominant economic interests.
Leiter, B. (2015)
Spitzer, S. (1983)

Critical Theories of Law

1.Legal realism ( a reaction to the legal formalism)
  • reached its apex in the 1920s and 30s 
  • American legal realist movement in the 1930s
  • Realists" of the I930's 
  • dominant approach for much of the early 20th century
  • Legal realism is a naturalistic approach to law. Legal realists believe that the legal science should investigate law exclusively with the value-free methods of natural sciences, also called 'sciences of the real'.
  • rejected the law's claim to objectivity
  • legal decision-making involves not formal, deductive logic but subjective choice; any legal choice made is never logically compelled
  • accepted the conceptual framework of the natural sciences as adequate for the characterization of law
  •  the focus of all legal realists is on legal science proper
  • Due to their value-free approach, legal realists are opposed to natural law traditions
  •  legal realists are opposed to most versions of contemporary legal positivism. A further difference from all sorts of legal positivism is that legal realists refuse to confine their investigations to state law and/or positive law.
  • The realists eschewed the conceptual approach of the positivists and naturalists in favor of an empirical analysis that sought to show how practicing judges really decide cases
  • the realists maintained that judges create new law through the exercise of lawmaking discretion considerably more often than is commonly supposed
  •  judicial decision is guided far more frequently by political and moral intuitions about the facts of the case (instead of by legal rules) than theories like positivism and naturalism acknowledge.
  • legal realism arose in response to legal formalismRealists believe that formalism understates judicial lawmaking abilities
  • Legal realism was primarily a reaction to the legal formalism of the late 19th century and early 20th century, 
  •  judges make new law in deciding legal disputes through the exercise of a lawmaking discretion
  • judicial decisions in indeterminate cases are influenced by the judge's political and moral convictions, not by legal considerations.
  • realist acknowledges that law is essentially the product of official activity, but believes that judicial lawmaking occurs more frequently than is commonly assumed.
  • Though the preoccupations of the realists were empirical (that is, attempting to identify the psychological and sociological factors influencing judicial decision-making), their implicit conceptual commitments were decidedly positivistic in flavor
  • The legal realists persuasively argued that statutory and case law is indeterminate, and that appellate courts decide cases not based upon law, but upon what they deem fair in light of the facts of a case.
  •  Considered "the most important jurisprudential movement of the 20th century",[12] American legal realism sent a shock through American legal scholarship by undermining the formalist tenets that were long considered a bedrock of jurisprudence

*legal formalism
  • late 19th century and early 20th century
  • Prior to the 1930s, American jurisprudence had been dominated by a formalist account of how courts decide cases, an account which held that judges decide cases on the basis of distinctly legal rules and reasons that justify a unique result.
  • mechanical application of known legal principles to uncontroversial fact-finding
  • formalists believe that judges should reach their decisions by applying uncontroversial principles to the facts
  •  a normative theory of how judges ought to decide cases
  • As a normative theory, formalism is the view that judges should decide cases by the application of uncontroversial principles to the facts.
  •  formalists believe that there is an underlying logic to these principles that is straightforward and which legal experts can readily discover. 
  • The ultimate goal of formalism would be to formalise the underlying principles in a single and determinate system that could be applied mechanically (hence the label 'mechanical jurisprudence'). 
  • Formalism sees adjudication as the uncontroversial application of accepted principles to known facts to derive the outcome
  • Formalists believe that the relevant principles of law of a given area can be discerned by surveying the case law of that area
  •  the only resources needed to create a science of law was a law library
  • judges require only the facts and the law, all normative issues such as morality or politics being irrelevant
  • If judges are seen to be simply applying the rules in a mechanical and uncontroversial manner, this protects judges from criticism. For this reason, formalism has been called 'the official theory of judging'.
  • Formalists, contrary to Realists, take the judge at face-value, assuming that the facts and principles as recorded in a judge's reasons reflect the facts that the judge considered to be relevant, and the principles that the judge arrived at to reach the judgement. They therefore place little emphasis on the means by which a judge determines the facts.

2.Critical Legal Studies movement (radical) influenced by Marx and others
  • in the 1970s and 80s
  • CLS was officially started in 1977 at the conference at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, but its roots extend back to 1960 when many of its founding members participated in social activism surrounding the Civil Rights movement and the Vietnam War.  Many CLS scholars entered law school in those years and began to apply the ideas, theories, and philosophies of postmodernity (intellectual movements of the last half of the twentieth century) to the study of law. 
  • borrowed from such diverse fields as social theory, political philosophy, economics, and literary theory. 
  • The critical legal studies (CLS) movement attempts to expand the radical aspects of legal realism into a Marxist critique of mainstream liberal jurisprudence. CLS theorists believe the realists understate the extent of indeterminacy; whereas the realists believe that indeterminacy is local in the sense that it is confined to a certain class of cases, CLS theorists argue that law is radically (or globally) indeterminate in the sense that the class of available legal materials rarely, if ever, logically/causally entails a unique outcome.
  • CLS theorists emphasize the role of ideology in shaping the content of the law. On this view, the content of the law in liberal democracies necessarily reflects "ideological struggles among social factions in which competing conceptions of justice, goodness, and social and political life get compromised, truncated, vitiated, and adjusted" (Altman 1986, p. 221). The inevitable outcome of such struggles, on this view, is a profound inconsistency permeating the deepest layers of the law. It is this pervasive inconsistency that gives rise to radical indeterminacy in the law. For insofar as the law is inconsistent, a judge can justify any of a number of conflicting outcomes.
  • Since then CLS has steadily grown in influence and permanently changed the landscape of legal theory. Among noted CLS theorists are Roberto Mangabeira Unger, Robert W. Gordon, Morton J. Horwitz, Duncan Kennedy, and Katharine A. MacKinnon.
  • Although CLS has been largely a U.S. movement, it was influenced to a great extent by European philosophers, such as nineteenth-century German social theorists Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, and Max Weber; Max Horkheimer and Herbert Marcuse of the Frankfurt school of German social philosophy; the Italian marxist Antonio Gramsci; and poststructuralist French thinkers Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida, representing respectively the fields of history and literary theory. 
  • CLS has borrowed heavily from Legal Realism, the school of legal thought that flourished in the 1920s and 1930s. Like CLS scholars, legal realists rebelled against accepted legal theories of the day and urged more attention to the social context of the law.
  • CLS includes several subgroups with fundamentally different, even contradictory, views: feminist legal theory, which examines the role of gender in the law; critical race theory (CRT), which is concerned with the role of race in the law; postmodernism, a critique of the law influenced by developments in literary theory; and a subcategory that emphasizes political economy and the economic context of legal decisions and issues.
  • law is a reflection of ideology was taken up again in the 1970s and 80s
  • Critical Legal Studies was a radical school of thought shaped by a number of influences: the Marxist and realist traditions; the philosophical perspective of ‘deconstruction;’ and the politics of issues such as feminism, environmentalism and anti-racism
  • ideological dimension of law
  • conceptualization of law itself as an ideological phenomenon
  • take up the realist idea that law is fundamentally indeterminate
  • take Marxist view---how the interests of the powerful shape law
  • logic and structure attributed to the law grow out of the power relationships of the society
  • The law exists to support the interests of the party or class that forms it and is merely a collection of beliefs and prejudices that legitimize the injustices of society.
  • The wealthy and the powerful use the law as an instrument for oppression in order to maintain their place in hierarchy. 
  • law is politics and it is not neutral or value free. 
  • Many in the CLS movement want to overturn the hierarchical structures of domination in the modern society and many of them have focused on the law as a tool in achieving this goal. 
  • At the heart of the CLS critique of liberal jurisprudence is the idea that radical indeterminacy is inconsistent with liberal conceptions of legitimacy. (According to these traditional liberal conceptions, the province of judges is to interpret, and not make, the law. For, on this view, democratic ideals imply that lawmaking must be left to legislators who, unlike appointed judges, are accountable to the electorate.) But if law is radically indeterminate, then judges nearly always decide cases by making new law, which is inconsistent with liberal conceptions of the legitimate sources of lawmaking authority.
  • to demonstrate the ambiguity and possible preferential outcomes of supposedly impartial and rigid legal doctrines.
  • to publicize historical, social, economic and psychological results of legal decisions
  • to demystify legal analysis and legal culture in order to impose transparency on legal processes so that they earn the general support of socially responsible citizens
  • Critical legal studies seeks to reform judicial practice to expose and eliminate obscure jargon private interests and class discrimination that CLS scholars argued are endemic in western legal cultures.
  • the first movement in legal theory and legal scholarship in the United States to have espoused a committed Left political stance and perspective
  • critical legal studies was committed to shaping society based on a vision of human personality devoid of the hidden interests and class domination that CLS scholars argued are at the root of liberal legal institutions in the West
  • Although the intellectual origins of the critical legal studies (CLS) can be generally traced to American legal realism, as a distinct scholarly movement CLS fully emerged only in the late 1970s.
  • Many first-wave American CLS scholars entered legal education, having been profoundly influenced by the experiences of the civil rights movement, women's rights movement, and the anti-war movement of the 1960s and 1970s. 
  • What started off as a critical stance towards American domestic politics eventually translated into a critical stance towards the dominant legal ideology of modern Western society.
  • legal materials (such as statutes and case law) do not completely determine the outcome of legal disputes
  •  all "law is politics". 
  • law tends to serve the interests of the wealthy and the powerful by protecting them against the demands of the poor and the subaltern (women, ethnic minorities, the working class, indigenous peoples, the disabled, homosexuals, etc.) for greater justice.
  • legal materials are inherently contradictory
  • Fundamentally convinced that law and politics could not be separated
  • try to explain why legal principles and doctrines do not yield determinate answers to specific disputes 
  • try to explain how legal decisions reflect cultural and political values that shift over time
  • focused from the start on the ways that law contributed to illegitimate social hierarchies, producing domination of women by men, nonwhites by whites, and the poor by the wealthy
  • They claim that apparently neutral language and institutions, operated through law, mask relationships of power and control
  • Many who identify with the critical legal studies movement resist or reject efforts to systematize their own work. They seek to express claims of textual ambiguity and historical contingency in their own methods. Influenced by post-modernist developments in cultural studies, these critical scholars prefer episodic interventions to systematized theories. 
  • Some critical scholars adapt ideas drawn from Marxist and socialist theories to demonstrate how economic power relationships influence legal practices and consciousness. 
  • For others, the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory and its attention to the construction of cultural and psycho-social meanings are central to explaining how law uses mechanisms of denial and legitimation. 
  • Still others find resonance with postmodernist sensibilities and deconstruction, notably illustrated in literary and architectural works. 
  • Some scholars emphasize the importance of narratives and stories in devising critical alternatives to prevailing legal practices. Many critical legal scholars draw upon intellectual currents in literature, pop culture, social theory, history, and other fields to challenge the idea of the individual as a stable, coherent self, capable of universal reason and guided by general laws of nature. In contrast, argue critical scholars, individuals are constituted by complex and completing sources of ideology, social practice, and power relationships.
  • seek to demonstrate the indeterminacy of legal doctrine and show how any given set of legal principles can be used to yield competing or contradictory results;
  • undertake historical, socioeconomic and psychological analyses to identify how particular groups and institutions benefit from legal decisions despite the indeterminacy of legal doctrines;
  • expose how legal analysis and legal culture mystify outsiders and work to make legal results seem legitimate; and
  • elucidate new or previously disfavored social visions and argue for their realization in legal and political practices in part by making them part of legal strategies.
  • Legal principles and doctrines are indeterminate

3.Law and Economics
The "law and economics movement" argues for the value of economic analysis in the law both as a description about how courts and legislators do behave and as a prescription for how such officials should behave. The legal economists, led by Richard Posner, argue that the content of many areas of the common law can be explained in terms of its tendency to maximize preferences:

Rule of Law conflict with the radical view (Marx, Critical legal studies)

Rule of law 
  •  law should meet certain procedural requirements so that the individual is enabled to obey it
  •  the law be general, that it take the form of rules
  •  Law by definition should be directed to more than a particular situation or individual
  •  as Lon Fuller notes, the rule of law also requires that law be relatively certain, clearly expressed, open, prospective and adequately publicised
liberal legalism

Monday, September 18, 2017

China rewrites history with new censorship drive

SEPTEMBER 5, 2017 by Ben Bland in Hong Kong

First it put the squeeze on ideologically impure academics. Then it tried to censor foreign publishers such as Cambridge University Press. Now President Xi Jinping’s government is intensifying its drive to rewrite Chinese history by amending the archival record itself. New research by a legal scholar reveals that Chinese authorities have been taking advantage of the digitalisation of historical documents by systematically deleting Chinese journal articles from the 1950s that challenge the orthodoxy promoted by Mr Xi. Glenn Tiffert, a research fellow at the University of Michigan, found that two of China’s main online databases for scholarly articles had removed dozens of articles that questioned the Communist party’s commitment to the rule of law at the time. The two online sites he examined are the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, a commercial venture connected to Tsinghua University, and the National Social Sciences Database, a government-sponsored platform.

 Academics say his findings are significant because many scholars in China and beyond rely on these online databases and the removal of such seemingly obscure material supports the belief that the regime is conducting a much deeper rewriting of history. “In the past if someone wanted to censor, they had to go to the bookshelves and remove copies or pages but today, with a few keystrokes, you can wipe out content everywhere instantaneously,” said Mr Tiffert. “The result is that anyone who does research will come away misinformed or with a distorted view.” The two databases in question did not respond to requests for comment. In the past if someone wanted to censor, they had to go to the bookshelves and remove copies or pages but today, with a few keystrokes, you can wipe out content everywhere instantaneously.  

Cambridge University Press, the world’s oldest publisher, was recently asked by Chinese censors to block access to hundreds of academic articles by some of the world’s leading sinologists. LexisNexis, which runs a database of historical news cuttings from the world’s main media companies, withdrew some of its products from the China market in March after authorities asked it to remove some stories about China. Mr Tiffert said that digitalisation has become an enabling tool for authoritarian regimes such as China, which has taken the lesson from the collapse of the Soviet Union that Communist governments “may not survive critical scrutiny”.

Zhang Lifan, a Beijing-based historian who has been blocked from using social media because of his criticisms of Mao Zedong, argues that the drive to curb critical historical research and block access to or alter archives will backfire. “If government officials don’t know the real history, it will lead to stupid decisions and stupid policies,” he said. But, in the meantime, life is getting more difficult for Chinese academics, many of whom are subject to ideological monitoring in class and banned from talking to foreign media. “Many of those who teach the real history have been sacked or punished,” said Mr Zhang. “No one dares to do research on social movements and most spend their time researching Xi’s ideas and Marxism-Leninism.”

Although the Communist party has always tried to keep a tight grip on the historical narrative, Zhang Qianfan, a professor of constitutional law at Peking University, said it was getting worse, making “society and particularly the younger generations more ignorant about modern history”. The case of Cambridge University Press, which initially complied with the censors’ requests for fear of losing access to the lucrative Chinese market, also highlights how the Communist party is attempting to export its political control, with some success. “Given how many cash-strapped universities are looking to attract Chinese money and Chinese students, I would not touch research on sensitive subjects like Xinjiang, Tibet or human rights now, in terms of career prospects or my ability to get visas for China,” said one leading China academic at a European university, who did not want to be named.

Additional reporting by Nicolle Liu

political ideologies

The Natural Law

Sunday, September 17, 2017











內 容









臺灣地區金融機構辦理大陸地區間接匯款作業準則, 民國八十二年七月二十七日

臺灣地區金融機構辦理大陸地區匯款作業準則, 中華民國九十一年二月十三日財政部(91)台財融(一)字第 0911000058 號令修正發布名稱及全文 9  條(原名稱:臺灣地區金融機構辦理


Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of National Mobilization for Suppression of the Communist Rebellion

Period of National Mobilization in Suppression of Communist Rebellion

National Security Act During the Period of National Mobilization for Suppression of the Communist Rebellion


Enforcement Rules of the National Security Act During the Period of National Mobilization for Suppression of the Communist Rebellion

Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of National Mobilization for Suppression of the Communist Rebellion

Regulations Governing Settlement of Labor Disputes During the Period of National Mobilization for Suppression of the Communist Rebellion

Saturday, September 16, 2017

old 臺灣地區銀行辦理大陸地區間接進出口外匯業務作業準則,  民國八十四

new 臺灣地區銀行辦理大陸地區進出口外匯業務作業準則
old 臺灣地區與大陸地區證券及期貨業務往來許可辦法 民國八十五年

new  臺灣地區與大陸地區證券期貨業務往來及投資許可管理辦法
old 臺灣地區與大陸地區保險業務往來許可辦法,民國八十三年

new 臺灣地區與大陸地區保險業務往來及投資許可管理辦法
Regulations Governing Approvals of Banks to Engage in Financial Activities Between the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area






《臺灣地區公務員及特定身分人員進入大陸地區許可辦法修正總說明(97.12.30  修




cross-strait relationship laws


Friday, September 15, 2017


中華民國八十二年四月三十日財政部(82)台財融字第 820178343  號 令訂定發布全文 7  條

第    1     條
第    2     條
第    3     條
第    4     條
第    5     條
第    6     條
第    7     條

Thursday, September 14, 2017

tax 中英譯

營利事業所得稅 Profit-seeking Enterprise Income Tax

Profit-seeking Enterprise Income Tax

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Period of National Mobilization for Suppression of the Communist Rebellion: 動員戡亂時期

Tuesday, September 12, 2017

Regulations for Assumption of Year of Employment in Position Resumption of Civil Servant Transferred to China-affairs-related Organization



新聘 Initial Employment
續聘 Renewed Employment
升等 Promotion
特聘 Distinguished Employment
長聘 Tenured Employment
合聘 Jointly-Appointed
借調 Temporary Transfer
歸建 Returning to the Original Agency
評議會 Council of Academia Sinica
院務會議 General Assembly
所務會議 Institute Council
處務會議 Preparatory Office Council
業務會議 Session
學術諮詢委員會 Academic Advisory Committee
人事委員會 Personnel Committee
聘審小組 Employment Review Committee
院聘任資格審查委員會 General Appointment and Promotion Committee, Academia Sinica
學組聘任資格審查委員會 Divisional Appointment and Promotion Committee, Academia Sinica
研究技術人員聘任資格審查委員會 Review Committee on Research Technical Personnel
新聘人員學術研究獎金審核委員會 Review Committee on Newly-Employed Staff Academic Research Grants
學術研究績效評定委員會 Academic Research Performance Assessment Committee
當然委員 Apparent Members
專任 Full-time Employment
兼任 Concurrent Employment
研究人員 Research Staff
研究技術人員 Research Specialist
編制內人員 Certified Staff
爭取時效程序 Time-effective Procedure
敘薪 Contracted Salary
職務等級表 Scale of Positions  
晉級 Promotion
申訴 Appeal
再議 Re-deliberation
不予續聘 Renewed Employment Denial
不予升等 Promotion Denial
不予長聘 Tenured Employment Denial
公布日實施 The Act/Regulation Takes Effect on the Day of Promulgation
員額 Personnel Quota  
推薦 Recommendation
無給職 Non-paid Position
準用 Applicable Mutatis Mutandis
答辯 Defence
核定 Approval
核備 Approval for Reference
核聘 Approval for Employment
審議 Deliberation
應出席人數 Attendance of a Majority of Members
因公出國 Overseas Business Trip
留職停薪 Position Retained without Pay
帶職帶薪 Position Retained with Pay
因病住院 Hospitalization
擬任職務相當 Equal Capacity of the Reserved Position
聘期 Term of Employment
作業程序 Operating Procedure
審議要點 Directions for Deliberation
組織 Organization
機關 Government Agency
委員會 Commission
組織編制 Organization Structure
職系 Series
職務列等表 Grading of Positions  
職掌 Function
文官 Public Functionary
政務官 Political Appointee
事務官 Civil Servant
機要人員 Confidential Employee
新進人員 New Recruit
員額精簡 Staff Reduction
人力 Manpower
雇用 Employment
職員 Staff
職位 Position  
職務 Capacity
官等 Official Rank
職等 Grade  
簡任 Senior
薦任 Associate
委任 Junior
編制員額 Authorized Complement
預算員額 Budgeted Complement
考試 Examination
分發 Assignment
銓敘 Qualification Screening
依法考試及格 Legal Passage of Examination
依法銓敘合格 Legal Qualification by Evaluation
依法升等合格 Legal Promotion by Performance and Training
任用 Appointment
任命 Appointing
調動 Transfer
升遷 Promotion
降職 Demotion
免職 Dismissal
權理 Acting for the Higher Position
代理 Substitution
升官等考試 Promotion Examination
升官等訓練 Promotion Training
陞遷序列表 List of Promotion Rank
得免經甄審優先陞任 Promotion with First Priority without Screening and Selection
先予試用 Probation
合格實授 Qualification of Appointment Verified
准予權理 Acting for the Higher Position Verified
本院延聘顧問、客座專家及學者作業要點 Guidelines for Inviting Consultants, Visiting Specialists, and Scholars at Academia Sinica
各機關聘請國外顧問、專家及學者來台工作期間支付費用最高標準表 Payment for the Foreign Consultants, Professionals, and Scholars during Working in Taiwan
擴展新研究領域所需研究人才為限 Subject to Researchers Expanding Research in New Fields
延聘對象 Recruitment Object
延攬等級 Recruitment Level
延聘期限 Duration of Retention
員額限制 Personnel Quota Restriction
工作報酬與預算經費 Work Remuneration and Budgets
補助來回機票、保險費及國內交通費,所需經費由院方支付 Round-trip Air Ticket Subsidy, Domestic Transportation Fare and Insurance Premium Paid by Academia Sinica
於起聘日二個月前依第四點所訂之程序送請審查 All Documents Should Be Submitted to Academia Sinica for Review Two Months Prior to the Commencement of the Expected Arrival Date as Outlined in Point 4.
科技部補助延攬研究學者暨執行專題研究計畫作業要點 Regulations Governing the Recruitment of Research Scholars with Subsidies and the Execution of Research Projects from the Ministry of Science and Technology
科技部補助延攬客座科技人才作業要點 Regulations Governing the Recruitment of Visiting Science and Technology Personnel with Subsidies from the Ministry of Science and Technology
研發能量暨成果審查 Research Achievement and Result Review  
員額核配審查 Review of the Personnel Quota Allotment
續僱 Continuing Contract
出缺不補 No-Replacement for Vacancy
契約書 Contract
備查 Approval for Investigation
解聘 Contract Termination
解僱 Contract Termination
資遣 Severance  
工作酬金 Work Remuneration
原敘等級 Previous Confirmed Pay Rate
薪點 Salary Rate
薪點折合率 Salary Rate Conversion
公開甄選 Openly Screen and Select
學術服務助理人員 Academic Service Assistant
績效獎金 Performance Result Bonus
獎懲 Rewards and Punishments
性騷擾防治法 Sexual Harassment Prevention Act
心理健康諮商服務 Mental Health Counseling Service
臨床心理師 Clinical Psychologist  
心理諮商室 Counseling Room
兼職 Holding Two Posts Concurrently
兼課 Part-time Teaching
考績 Performance Evaluation
考核 Performance Appraisal
服務 Service
保障 Security
公務人員考績法 Civil Service Performance Evaluation Act
公務人員考績法施行細則 Enforcement Rules of Civil Service Performance Evaluation Act  
公務員服務法 Civil Servant Service Act
軍公教人員兼職費及講座鐘點費支給規定 Regulations Governing the Payment of Concurrent Serving & Lecture Hourly-Pay to Military, Public and Teaching Personnel
訓練 Training
講學 Lecture
研究 Research
進修 Advanced Study
全時進修 Full-time Advanced Study
部分辦公時間進修 Part-time Advanced Study
公餘進修 Off-duty Advanced Study
參觀訪問 Visit
蒐集資料 Data Collecting
田野調查 Field Study
國外短期研究 Overseas Short-term Research
履行服務義務 Fulfillment of Service obligation
休假研究(含講學,每七年休一年) Sabbatical Leave
講學研究進修審核小組 Review Committee of Lecture, Research and Advanced Study
專書閱讀 Reading Specified Books
導讀會 Guided Reading
行政中立 Administrative Neutrality
傑出貢獻獎 Distinguished Achievement Award
模範公務人員 Model Civil Servants
工作績優人員 Outstanding Performance Civil Servants
服務獎章 Service Medal
服務獎章獎勵金 Cash Reward for Service Medal
嘉獎 Commendation
記小功 Merit Citation
記大功 Major Merit Citation
申誡 Reprimand
小過 Demerit
大過 Major Demerit
送審案 Submitted Cases for Review
請假單 Leave Sheet
請假人 Leave Applicant
按日扣薪 Salary Deducted by Day
假別簡表 Miscellaneous Authorized Absences and Vacations
公假 Leave for Statutory Reasons
事假 Personal Leave
生理假 Menstrual Leave
病假 Sick Leave
休假 Annual Leave
婚假 Wedding Leave
娩假 Maternity Leave
喪假 Funeral Leave
值班補休 Deferred Leave for Guard Duty
加班補休 Deferred Leave for Working Overtime
出差補休 Deferred Leave for Business Trip
公差 Leave for Public Affairs
流產假 Miscarriage Leave
產前假 Pre-Maternity Leave
陪產假 Accompanying Maternity Leave
家庭照顧假 Family Care Leave
骨髓捐贈假 Bone Marrow Donation Leave
器官捐贈假 Organ Donation Leave
申訴專線 Grievance  Hotline
性騷擾申訴信箱 Sexual Harassment Complaints
申訴 Grievance
再申訴 Re-Appeal
公務人員保障法 Civil Service Protection Act
甲等 Grade A
乙等 Grade B
丙等 Grade C
丁等 Grade D
諮商輔導委員會 Counseling and Guidance Committee
公務人員請假規則 Civil Service Leave Regulations
行政院與所屬中央及地方各機關聘僱人員給假辦法 Regulations on Special Leave for Employees of the Executive Yuan and Subordinated Agencies
中央研究院約聘僱人員考核標準 Contract-based Employee Performance Appraisal Guidelines, Academia Sinica  
志願服務 Volunteer Service
停留簽證 Visitor Visa
居留簽證 Resident Visa
外僑居留證 Alien Resident Certificate
外交部領事事務局 Bureau of Consular Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
內政部移民署 National Immigration Agency
公教人員保險 Government Employees' and School Staff's Insurance
公教人員保險法 GESSI Act
公教人員保險法施行細則 Enforcement Rules of GESSI Act
生活津貼 Living Allowance
子女教育補助 Children Education Subsidy
結婚補助 Wedding Subsidy
生育補助 Childbirth Subsidy
喪葬補助 Death Subsidy
養老給付 Old-Age Benefits
眷屬喪葬津貼 Dependents’ Funeral Allowance
殘廢津貼 Disability Allowance
公教人員保險被保險人留職停薪選擇續(退)保同意書 The Agreement Letter of Insurance Change of the Insured Civil Servant and Public School Personnel, Position Retained without Pay
保險費證明單 Insurance Premium Certificate
公教人員保險殘廢證明書 Disability Certificate of Civil Servant and School Staff Insurance
保險俸給 Insurance Pay
保險費率 Insurance Premium Rate
勞工保險 Labor Insurance
勞工保險條例 Labor Insurance Act
勞工保險條例施行細則 Enforcement Rules of Labor Insurance Act
勞工保險卡 Labor Insurance Card
生育給付 Maternity Benefits
傷病給付 Injury or Sickness Benefits
殘廢給付 Disability Benefits
老年給付 Old-Age Benefits
本人死亡給付 Insured Person Death Benefits
眷屬死亡給付 Dependents’ Death Benefits
職災醫療給付 Medical-Care Benefits for Occupational Injury
全民健康保險 National Health Insurance (NHI)
全民健康保險法 National Health Insurance Act
全民健康保險法施行細則 Enforcement Rules of National Health Insurance Act
健保IC卡 NHI IC Card
自墊醫療費用核退 Reimbursement of Self-advanced Medical Expenses
勞工退休金 Labor Retirement Pension
勞工退休金條例 Labor Pension Act
勞工退休金條例施行細則 Enforcement Rules of Labor Pension Act
勞工個人退休金專戶 Employee's Individual Account of Labor Pension
勞工自願提繳退休金 Employee’s Voluntary Contribution of Labor Pension
離職儲金 Contribution Benefits
各機關學校聘僱人員離職儲金給與辦法 Regulations of "pay-as-you-go" Contribution Benefit for Personnel Served in All Organizations and Schools under Civil Contractual Relationship  
公提儲金 Mandatory Pension Contribution
自提儲金 Voluntary Pension Contribution
公務人員退休法 Civil Service Retirement Act
公務人員退休法施行細則 Enforcement Rules of Civil Service Retirement Act
退休 Retirement
自願退休 Voluntary Retirement
屆齡退休 Mandatory Retirement
命令退休 Involuntary Retirement
退休金 Pension
一次退休金 Lump-sum Retirement Payment
月退休金 Monthly Retirement Payment
兼領二分之一之一次退休金與二分之一月退休金 1/2 Lump-sum Retirement Payment & 1/2 Monthly Retirement Payment
兼領三分之一之一次退休金與三分之二月退休金 1/3 of Lump-sum Retirement Payment &  2/3 of Monthly Retirement Payment
兼領四分之一之一次退休金與四分之三月退休金 1/4 of Lump-sum Retirement Payment &  3/4 of Monthly Retirement Payment
一次補償金 Lump-sum Compensation
月補償金 Monthly Compensation
實物代金 Money in Lieu of Kind
公務人員撫卹法 Civil Service Survivor Relief Act
公務人員撫卹法施行細則 Enforcement Rules of Civil Service Survivor Relief Act
撫卹 Indemnity
一次撫卹金 Lump-sum Compensation
年撫卹金 Annual Compensation
給卹年限 Years of Compensation Payment
一次撫慰金 Lump-sum Survivor Annuity
月撫慰金 Monthly Survivor Annuity
退休公務人員公保養老給付優惠存款 Preferential Interest Rate for Pension Paid by Public Insurance of Retired Civil Servant
公教人員急難貸款 Emergency Loan for Civil Servants and Teachers
學校教職員退休條例 Statute Governing the Retirement of School Faculty and Staff
學校教職員退休條例施行細則 Implementation Rules for the Statute Governing the Retirement of School Faculty
學校教職員撫卹條例 Statute Governing the Consolation Payment to Surviving Dependents at the Death of Teachers and School Staff
學校教職員撫卹條例施行細則 Enforcement Rules of the Statute Governing the Consolation Payment to Surviving Dependents at the Death of Teachers and School Staff
政務人員退職撫卹條例 Statute Governing the Discharge and Survivor Relief of Political Appointee
政務人員退職撫卹條例施行細則 Implementation Rules of the Statute Governing the Discharge and Survivor Relief of Political Appointee
延長服務 Extended Service
退休人員三節慰問金 Holiday Benefits for Retired Civil Servants
公務人員退休撫卹基金 Public Service Pension Fund
補繳退撫基金年資 Pension Fund Replenishment
退撫基金撥繳比率 Pension Fund Contribution Rate
公務人員因公傷殘死亡慰問金發給辦法 Regulations Governing the Awards of Solatium to a Civil Servant Injured, Deformed or Died Due to Performing Duties
再任有給公職 Re-employed as a Paid Public Servant
年終慰問金 Year-end Relief Payment
舊制年資 Years of Service in Old System
新制年資 Years of Service in New System
基數 Radix
本俸 Basic Pay
年功俸 Seniority Pay
加給 Allowance
專業加給 Profession Allowance
技術加給 Technical Allowance
地域加給 Regional Allowance
主管職務加給 Supervisory Differential Pay
等級 Grade
薪額 Base Salary
酬金 Remuneration
交通費 Transportation Fare  
出差旅費 Business Trip Allowance
年終獎金 Year-End Bonus
學術研究獎金 Academic Research Grants
考績獎金 Performance Evaluation Bonus
薪俸表 Statement of Earnings and Deductions
研究獎助費 Research Awards
簡任非主管 Senior Position, Non-supervisor
行政管理費 Administrative Management Costs  
俸點 Points of Pay
公務人員俸給表 Table of Salary Grades and Remuneration Standards
員工文康旅遊活動 Employee Recreational and Travel Activities
學分補助費 Credit Subsidy
執行命令 Enforcement of Laws and Regulations
實報實銷 Money Refund Subject to Counterfoil or Receipt
人事資料 Personnel Data
人事資料管理 Personnel Data Management  
公務人員履歷表 Civil Servant Resume
員工名錄 Staff Directory
全國公務人員人事資訊統一代碼 All Civil Service Personnel Information Management by Uniform Code
科技管理人力 Technology Management Personnel